Four Living Standards Measurement Study surveys had been conducted in Tajikistan. The first was conducted in 1999, the second was conducted in 2003. The 2007 is the third one, and 2009 is the fourth one. The 2007 TLSS and the 2009 TLSS form a panel survey.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
1. Household Roster: This module contains the roster of individuals living in the household, their relationship to the household, gender, year of birth, age, and marital status. It also allows the identification of spouses, and parents of household members.
2. Migration: This module collects information on three types of migration.
Part A collects information on internal migration, including the last two moves within the country.
Part B collects information on international migration for those household members currently residing in the household.
Part C collects information on individuals who would be members of the household if they were currently residing in the household.
3. Education: The education module collects information in two parts.
Part A collects information on children under 6 years of age who are attending (or not) preschool. Part B collects information on the education level for all respondents 6 years old or older.
4. Health: The health module collects information general health status (Part A), utilization of outpatient health care (Part B), hospitalization (Part C), access to health care (Part D), and HIV/AIDS awareness (Part E).
5. Labour Market: The labour market module collects information on the participation in the labor market during the past 14 days (Part A), jobs worked in the last 14 days (Part B), main and secondary jobs worked in the last 14 days, (Part C), and activities over the last 12 months (Part D). This module includes a series of questions designed to help determine the reasons why respondents chose the informal sector over the formal sector.
6. Financial Services: Information is collected on the use of formal and informal institutions for banking and loan services.
7. Dwelling, Utilities, and Durable Goods: Standard information on the description of the dwelling, and use of utilities is collected. An expanded section on water and sanitation was included. Ownership and current value of durable goods was also collected.
8. Transfers and Social Assistance
Part A collects information on transfers received from other households or institutions.
Part B collects information on transfers made to other households or institutions.
Part C collects information on social assistance received by members of the household.
9. Subjective Poverty and Food Security: This module collects information on food security and information needed to generate the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Part B collects information on who makes decisions within the household regarding household chores and activities such as purchases, marriage, school attendance, etc.
10. Consumption and expenditures on Food for the Last 7 Days: This module asks what food items were consumed in the last 7 days, and the method used to acquire the items, purchase, home production, receipt as a gift, received as humanitarian aid, received as part of salary, or taken from stocks. Information is also collected on the prices of purchased goods.
11. Expenditures on Non-Food Items:
Part A collects information on non-food items purchased during the past 30 days,
Part B collects information on nonfood items purchased during the past 6 months, and
Part C collects information on non-food items purchased during the last 12 months.
12. Agriculture Household This module collects information on agricultural holdings of the household including land used, machinery owned, crops grown, inputs used, livestock owned, and livestock by-product
13. Other Income: This module collects information on income from sources such as rental income, revenue from sale of assets, and other income.
14. Subjective Beliefs:: The head of household is asked his opinion about different scenarios regarding how his or her life might be in the future in Part A. In Part B, the head of household is asked a series of
vignettes and is then asked to rank the vignette on a scale from 1 to 6.
15. Immunization and anthropometrics: The immunization records for children 0 to 6 years old is collected.
FEMALE QUESTIONNAIRE (Females 15 through 49)
A. Time Use: Time spent on various household chores during the past 7 days.
B. Fertility: Age at first period, age at first marriage, number of children born (alive or still born), and a fertility history.
C. Information on last child born: Pre-natal care, medical assistance at birth, breastfeeding, cessation of breastfeeding, number of miscarriages and still births, if the woman has had an induced abortion, and most
important source of contraception information.
1. Demographic Community Demographics of the community.
2. Infrastructure Community General characteristics of the community in terms of local infrastructure.
3. Economy Community Information on the major economic activities in the community.
4. Education Community The availability of services within the education sector.
5. Health Community Information about the health services and garbage disposal.
6. Agriculture Community General information on agriculture in the community.
7. Institutions Community Presence of public institutions in the community.
8. Prices Community Prices of goods found in the food consumption module in the household questionnaire and some additional prices.
Producers and sponsors
State Statistical Agency
A detailed description of the sampling methodology is available in appendix to the document "Basic Information Document".
The TLSS sample was designed to allow reliable estimation of poverty and most variables for a variety of other living standard indicators at the various domains of interest based on a representative probability sample on the level of:
• Tajikistan as a whole
• Total urban and total rural areas
• The five main administrative regions (oblasts) of the country: Dushanbe, Rayons of Republican Subordination (RRS), Sogd, Khatlon, and Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO)
The last census was conducted in 2000 and covered all five main administrative regions (oblasts) of the country (Dushanbe, RRS, Sogd, Khatlon, and GBAO). Each oblast was further subdivided into smaller areas called census section, instructor's sector and enumeration sector (ES). Each ES is either totally urban or rural. The list of ESs has census information on the population of each ES, and the ES lists were grouped by oblast.
In 2005, UNICEF implemented a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS05) in Tajikistan during which an electronic database of the ES information was created. Information in this database included: oblast, rayon, jamoat, settlement type, city/village, ES code, and population. Information from this database was used in the sample design of the TLSS07.
The total number of clusters for the TLSS07 was established as 270 and total number of households per cluster was established as 18, resulting in a sample size of 4,860. The sample size was determined by taking into account:
• The reliability of the survey estimates on both regional and national level
• Quality of the data collected for the survey
• Cost in time for the data collection
• An oversample in 7 rayons in Khatlon
The TLSS07 was designed and implemented under an accelerated schedule. The design of the questionnaires, and preparation for the field work took place during a two month period in July and August 2007. Field work was done in two stages. The first stage was done in September-October 2007 during the Ramadan period. The second stage was done during October-November 2007. In the Second Round, it was not possible to reach all of the households from the First Round. Of the 4,860 households in the First Round, 4,490 households were re-visited.
Three clusters or 54 households could not be revisited due to adverse conditions and 100 households could not be found. 216 households in Sughd were not revisited using the Second Round questionnaire because their First Round data had to be excluded. The Sughd households were revisited with a complete household questionnaire.
The accelerated schedule was needed in part because of Goskomstat’s other commitments and in part because of the weather. After October, it becomes difficult to reach some of the more remote areas of the country.
The First Round questionnaire collected complete information from the household on various topics (see section on Survey Instruments below). The Second Round questionnaire collected information on changes to the roster since the First Round, migration information for those members who joined to the household after the First Round, anthropometrics for children less than 6 years old, and additional health expenditures. It also re-administered the food consumption and food security modules. A third data collection effort was done in Sughd with questionnaires that combined the household questionnaire from the First Round and the additional portions of the household questionnaire from the Second Round.
Training and Pilot Test
Training for supervisors for the First Round of the survey was held during 10-12 August 2007. At this time, the supervisors were given extensive instructions in the details of the First Round questionnaires. The questionnaires were reviewed on a question by question basis to familiarize the supervisors with all aspects of the questionnaires and to prepare them for potential questions from the enumerators during the next phase of training.
The supervisor training was also used to pilot test the questionnaires. The pilot test was held on 13-14 August 2007 and the review of the pilot was done on 15 August 2007. The pilot test led to reductions in the length of the questionnaire.
Training for the enumerators for the First Round of the survey was held from 20-31 August 2007. The 93 enumerators were trained at the same time in the same room. Training was done through power point presentations and practical examples.
Training for the supervisors for the Second Round and Sughd revisits was held on 18 October 2007. In this training, the supervisors discussed the Second Round and Sughd questionnaires on a question by question basis. They were given extensive instructions on the details of this questionnaire. Only 60 enumerators were used in the Second Round and Sugh revisits. These enumerators had also worked in the First Round so no additional organized training was given. Their supervisors updated them regarding modifications to the questionnaires.
Field work for the First Round of TLSS07 began on 7 September 2007 and went through 13 October 2007. Field work teams consisted of one supervisor, one data editor, six enumerators and two drivers. In total there were 15 teams. The supervisors were responsible for making sure that the interviewers had the materials they needed and for making sure that any problems that came up in the field were resolved. They were also responsible for collecting the information in the community questionnaire.
During the monitoring process, it was discovered that data from 216 households in the Sughd Oblast had to be excluded.
Information from these households was re-collected during the Second Round of data collection.
Field work for the Second Round and the Sughd household revisits was done 29 October through 10 November 2007. The same interviewers were used for the re-visits.
Three questionnaires were used to collect information for the TLSS07: a household questionnaire, a female questionnaire for recording information about women of child bearing age, and a community questionnaire. These questionnaires were based on the TLSS questionnaires used in 2003, but had some changes. Questions were added to existing modules and new modules were added to collect information to be used for MICS analyses. These included HIV/AIDS awareness, and Immunizations and Anthropometric Measurements for children 0 to 5 years old. Other new modules on Migration, Financial Services, Subjective Poverty and Food Security, and Subjective Beliefs were also added. The Labor Market Module was changed substantially from 2003 to better look at the informal labor market. The food expenditures module included additional food products. The HIV/AIDS questions were removed from the female questionnaire and were applied to all household members 12 to 49 years old.
The Second Round Household Questionnaire was shorter and was used primarily to collect additional information that was not possible to collect in the First Round. Because the First Round questionnaire was very long, it was decided to collect some information in a second round of visits to the households. The Household Questionnaire was the main instrument used during the Second Round. The female questionnaire was only used if females were added to the household after the First Round and the community questionnaire was not repeated. In the Second Round Household Questionnaire, the time reference period for the Food
Security module was reduced from 4 weeks to 2 weeks. This was done because in the households visited at the beginning of the Second Round, a 4 week period would have included the last portion of the Ramadan period.
Data Entry and Cleaning
The data entry program was designed using CSPro, a data entry package developed by the US Census Bureau. This software allows programs to be developed to perform three types of data checks: (a) range checks; (b) intra-record checks to verify inconsistencies pertinent to the particular module of the questionnaire; and (c) inter-record checks to determine inconsistencies between the different modules of the questionnaire.
The data from the First Round were key entered at the Goskomstat headquarters in Dushanbe starting 4 October 2007 through 25 November 2007. The Second Round and Sughd data were key entered from 26 November 2007 through 12 December 2007. All of the data were double entered with both the First Round, Second Round and Sughd re-collection double entry being completed by 22 January 2008.
The data cleaning process began in February 2008 and was completed at the end of May 2008.
How to Use the Data
There are three separate data bases with the data from the TLSS07. The data from each data collection is maintained separately. The data sets have similar names in each of the three separate data collections. First Round data sets have names in the form of “r1mnp” where “n” is the number of the module, and “p” is the part of the module (if any). Data from the Subjective Poverty module would be stored as “r1m9” and data from the Migration module, Part C Family Members Living Away from the Household would be stored as “r1m2c”. Second Round data set names have a similar form “r2mnp”. Data sets from the Sughd collection replace the “m” of the First Round with “sm”, such as sm12a1.
The variable names have a similar format. Each variable name includes the module in which the variable is found and the question number. For example, question 10 in Module 4 Health, Part B Utilization of Outpatient Health Care is “m4b_q10”. The variable names in all three of the data collections have the same format.
In addition to the individual roster files for each data base, there is also one roster file for all three data bases, rosterall. This roster file contains the information on all of the households and household members who are included in the data. There is a variable (source) indicating if the household/member is: (a) in Round 1 only; (b) in Round 2 only; (c) in Round 1 and Round 2; or (d) in the Sughd data. It is important to pay attention to this variable as the recall periods for the Subjective Poverty and Food Security Module (9A) is the last 4 weeks in the First Round, but changed to the last 2 weeks in the Second Round and the Sughd collection. In addition, the order of the question in the Expenditure On Food In The Last 7 Days, Module 10, changed
LSMS Data Manager
The World Bank
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged by including a citation which would include:
- Identification of the Primary Investigator
- Title of the survey (including the year of implementation)
- Survey reference number
- Source and date of download
Tajikistan State Statistical Agency. Tajikistan Living Standards Survey (TLSS) 2007. Ref. TJK_2007_TLSS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
World Bank, Development Economics Data Group
Production of metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
v02 (August 2016)
- The survey title was changed to Tajikistan Living Standards Survey (TLSS) to match the questionnaire
- Study ID changed from TJK_2007_LSMS_v01_M to TJK_2007_TLSS_v01_M