The Collection of Statistics (Central) Rules, 1959 framed under the 1953 Act provided for, among others, a comprehensive Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) in India. This survey replaced both the CMI (Census of Manufacturing Industries) and SSMI (Sample Survey of Manufacturing Industries). The ASI was launched in 1960 with 1959 as the reference year and is continuing since then except for 1972. For ASI, the Collection of Statistics Act 1953 and the rules frame there-under in 1959 provides the statutory basis. The ASI refers to the factories defined in accordance with the Factories Act 1948, and thus has coverage wider than that of the CMI and SSMI put together.
The Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) is the principal source of industrial statistics in India. It provides statistical information to assess and evaluate, objectively and realistically, the changes in the growth, composition and structure of organized manufacturing sector comprising activities related to manufacturing processes, repair services, gas and water supply and cold storage. The survey has so far been conducted annually under the statutory provisions of the Collection of Statistics (COS) Act, 1953 and the rules framed there-under in 1959 except in the State of Jammu & Kashmir where it is conducted under the J&K Collection of Statistics Act, 1961 and rules framed there under in 1964. From ASI 2010-11 onwards, the survey is to be conducted annually under the statutory provisions of the Collection of Statistics (COS) Act, 2008 and the rules framed there-under in 2011except in the State of Jammu & Kashmir where it is to be conducted under the J&K Collection of Statistics Act, 1961 and rules framed there under in 1964.
ASI schedule is the basic tool to collect required data for the factories registered under Sections 2(m)(i) and 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948. The schedule for ASI, at present, has two parts. Part-I of ASI schedule, processed at the CSO (IS Wing), Kolkata, aims to collect data on assets and liabilities, employment and labour cost, receipts, expenses, input items: indigenous and imported, products and by-products, distributive expenses, etc. Part-II of ASI schedule is processed by the Labour Bureau. It aims to collect data on different aspects of labour statistics, namely, working days, man-days worked, absenteeism, labour turnover, man-hours worked etc. The concepts and definition of various terms used in collection of ASI data are given in Chapter Two, and the details of the schedule, item descriptions and procedures for collecting information for each item.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
The primary unit of enumeration in the survey is a factory in the case of manufacturing industries, a workshop in the case of repair services, an undertaking or a licensee in the case of electricity, gas & water supply undertakings and an establishment in the case of bidi & cigar industries. The owner of two or more establishments located in the same State and pertaining to the same industry group and belonging to same scheme (census or sample) is, however, permitted to furnish a single consolidated return. Such consolidated returns are common feature in the case of bidi and cigar establishments, electricity and certain public sector undertakings.
ASI schedule is the basic tool to collect required data for the factories registered under Sections 2(m)(i) and 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948. The schedule for ASI, at present, has two parts. Part-I of ASI schedule, processed at the CSO (IS Wing), Kolkata, aims to collect data on assets and liabilities, employment and labour cost, receipts, expenses, input items: indigenous and imported, products and by-products, distributive expenses, etc. Part-II of ASI schedule is processed by the Labour Bureau. It aims to collect data on different aspects of labour statistics, namely, working days, mandays worked, absenteeism, labour turnover, man-hours worked etc.
Macroeconomics & Growth
Private Sector & Trade
WAGES AND SALARIES
NET VALUE ADDED
BLOCK-A (IDENTIFICATION BLOCK FOR OFFICIAL USE)
BLOCK-B (TO BE FILLED BY OWNERS)
BLOCK-C (FIXED ASSETS)
BLOCK-D (WORKING CAPITAL AND LOANS)
BLOCK-E (EMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR COST)
BLOCK-F (OTHER EXPENSES)
BLOCK-G (OTHER OUTPUT/RECEIPTS)
BLOCK-H (INPUT ITEMS - Indigenous items consumed)
BLOCK-I (INPUT ITEMS - Directly imported items only (consumed))
BLOCK-J (PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS (Manufactured by the unit))
The ASI extends its coverage to the entire country. It covers all factories registered under Sections 2(m)(i) and 2(m)(ii) of the Factories Act, 1948, where the manufacturing process is defined under Section 2(k) of the said Act. The survey also covers bidi and cigar manufacturing establishments registered under the Bidi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act 1966. All electricity undertakings engaged in generation, transmission and distribution of electricity registered with the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) were also covered under ASI irrespective of their employment size till ASI 1997-98. Defence establishments, oil storage and distribution depots etc. are excluded from the purview of the survey.
From ASI 1998-99, the electricity units registered with the CEA and the departmental units such as railway workshops, RTC workshops, Govt. Mints, sanitary, water supply, gas storage, etc. are not covered. However, Public Sector Undertakings and eligible captive plants are covered in the survey.
The primary unit of enumeration in the survey is a factory in the case of manufacturing industries, a workshop in the case of repair services, an undertaking or a licensee in the case of electricity, gas and water supply undertakings and an establishment in the case of bidi and cigar industries. The owner of two or more establishments located in the same state and pertaining to the same industry group and falling under the census scheme is, however, permitted to furnish a single consolidated return, termed as 'Joint Return'. Such consolidated returns are a common feature in the case of bidi and cigar establishments, electricity and certain public sector undertakings.
The survey cover factories registered under the Factory Act 1948.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistics Office (Industrial Statistics Wing)
Ministry of Statistics and PI, Government of India
CSO ( IS Wing), Kolkata
Analysis, Design & Processing
Field Operation Division, NSSO
Government of India
Standing Committee on Industiral Statistics
Formulation and Finalisation of Survey Study
Data Dissemination and Web hosting
The sampling design adopted in ASI has undergone considerable changes from time to time, taking into account the technical and other requirements. The earlier sampling design had been adopted from ASI 2007-08 to ASI 2011-12. From ASI 2012-13, a new sampling design has been adopted following the recommendation of Dr. S. L.Shetty Committee and approved by the SCIS subsequently. According to the new sampling design, all the factories in the updated frame are divided into two sectors, viz., Census and Sample.
Census Sector: Census Sector consists of the following units:
a) All industrial units belonging to the six less industrially developed states/ UT's viz.Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
b) For the rest of the twenty-six states/ UT's., (i) units having 100 or more employees, and (ii) all factories covered under Joint Returns.
c) After excluding the Census Sector units as defined in paragraphs a) and b) above, the strata will be formed at State × District × Sector × 4-digit of NIC-2008 level. Sectors are (i) Bidi, (ii) Manufacturing and (iii) Electricity. All units belonging to the strata (i.e., formed on the basis of units in State by District by Sector by 4-digit of NIC-08) having less than or equal to 4 units are also considered as Census Sector units.
a) Then factories, in each stratum, are arranged in order of their number of employees. Finally, the sample will be drawn circular systematically in the form of four
independent sub-samples considering an overall sampling fraction, say, between 16% to 20%, depending upon the availability of resources of FOD/State. An even number of units with a minimum of 4 units are selected and evenly distributed in four subsamples. It may be noted that in the formation of stratum, the sectors are taken as (i) Bidi, (ii) Manufacturing and (iii) Electricity. Moreover, each of the 4 sub-samples from a particular stratum may not have equal number of units.
b) Out of these four sub-samples, two, preferably the odd ones, will be given to FOD, NSSO and the remaining two will be given to State/UT for data collection. Thus if four sub-samples SS1, SS2, SS3 and SS4 are formed in each stratum, the sub-samples SS1 and SS3 will be surveyed by NSSO, FOD, and the sub-samples SS2 and SS4 will be surveyed by State/ UT.
c) The entire units under the Census scheme plus all the units belonging to the two subsamples meant for FOD (i.e., sub-samples SS1 and SS3) may be treated as the Central sample.
Deviations from the Sample Design
The sampling design adopted in ASI has undergone considerable changes from time to time, taking into account the technical and other requirements. The present sampling design has been adopted from ASI 2007-08. All the factories in the updated frame are divided into two sectors, viz., Census and Sample.
WGT (Multiplier Factor) is the weighing variable from Block A : Identification Block.
For Census data WGT has been given weight as 1.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Statutory return submitted by factories as well as Face to Face
NSSO under the the Ministry of Statistics and PI, Government of India is responsible for supervision of data collection.
The entire field work pertaining to central sample of Annual Survey of Industries is undertaken by the Field Operations Division (FOD) of NSSO. The ASI fieldwork is to be done by the Superintending Officers (S.Os) while the headquarters of FOD is responsible for the overall planning and execution of field work, control and monitoring of the progress at all India level, the Deputy Director Generals of the six Zonal Offices co-ordinate and monitor the progress in their jurisdiction. Planning and execution of the field work in the jurisdiction of Regional Office is the responsibility of the Regional Head.
Due to the introduction of Web Portal for collection, compilation and dissemination of ASI data, the entire operation will be web-based, and functions and operations as defined in the Operational Manual of ASI web portal. However, keeping in view that the existing practices and procedures will be followed for some more time either by FOD or by DES.
There is an in-built system of providing training to all Superintending Officers (S.Os) in the technique of conducting ASI work. Zonal training centres set up at Jaipur, Lucknow, Nagpur, Bangalore, Kolkata and Guwahati each headed by a Deputy Director General are responsible for providing training on ASI to S.Os. In these centers, special intensive courses of training on ASI are organised, in addition to other regular training programmes. This is apart from the training imparted to the S.Os in the Sub-Regional and Regional Offices before entrusting them with the actual field work
ASI is a time-bound survey. It is therefore extremely important to complete the entire fieldwork in the prescribed timeframe. For this purpose allotment to be made to the available number of S.Os in all the sub-regional offices/notional sub-regional offices at Regional Headquarters. In allotting the ASI factories among the S.Os, it is to be ensured that the total workload (including that of Agricultural Statistics work) per S.Os is as balanced and equitable as possible. This should be done after a proper assessment of size, location, geographical contiguity and the experience of the worker to the extent possible. It is also envisaged that at the time of allotting factories to the S.Os. the jurisdiction and factories be rotated among the S.Os in each SRO, as per the work allocation instructions issued by the Headquarters.
Data Collection Notes
ASI Schedule has two parts: Part-I and Part-II. Part-I of ASI schedule aims to collect data on assets and liabilities, employment and labour cost, receipts, expenses, input items – indigenous and imported, products and by-products, distributive expenses etc. Part-II of ASI schedule aims to collect data on different aspects of labour statistics, namely, working days, mandays worked, absenteeism, labour turnover, manhours worked, earning and social security benefits.
Field Operation Division, NSSO
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
Annual Survey of Industries Questionnaire is divided into different blocks:
BLOCK A.IDENTIFICATION BLOCK - This block has been designed to collect the descriptive identification of the sample enterprise. The items are mostly self-explanatory.
BLOCK B. TO BE FILLED BY OWNER OF THE FACTORY - This block has been designed to collect the particulars of the sample enterprise. This point onwards, all the facts and figures in this return are to be filled in by owner of the factory.
BLOCK C: FIXED ASSETS - Fixed assets are of a permanent nature having a productive life of more than one year, which is meant for earning revenue directly or indirectly and not for the purpose of sale in ordinary course of business. They include assets used for production, transportation, living or recreational facilities, hospital, school, etc. Intangible fixed assets like goodwill, preliminary expenses including drawing and design etc are excluded for the purpose of ASI. The fixed assets have, at the start of their functions, a definite value, which decreases with wear and tear. The original cost less depreciation indicates that part of value of fixed assets, which has not yet been transferred to the output. This value is called the residual value. The value of a fixed asset, which has completed its theoretical working life should always be recorded as Re.1/-. The revalued value is considered now. But depreciation will be taken on original cost and not on revalued cost.
BLOCK D: WORKING CAPITAL & LOANS - Working capital represents the excess of total current assets over total current liabilities.
BLOCK E : EMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR COST - Particulars in this block should relate to all persons who work in and for the establishment including working proprietors and active business partners and unpaid family workers. However, Directors of incorporated enterprises who are paid solely for their attendance at meeting of the Board of Directors are to be excluded.
BLOCK F : OTHER EXPENSES - This block includes the cost of other inputs as both the industrial and nonindustrial service rendered by others, which are paid by the factory and most of which are reflected in the ex-factory value of its production during the accounting year.
BLOCK G : OTHER INCOMES - In this block, information on other output/receipts is to be reported.
BLOCK H: INPUT ITEMS (indigenous items consumed) - This block covers all those goods (raw materials, components, chemicals, packing material, etc.), which entered into the production process of the factory during the accounting year. Any material used in the production of fixed assets (including construction work) for the factory's own use should also be included. All intermediate products consumed during the year are to be excluded. Intermediate products are those, which are produced by the factory but are, subjected to further manufacture. For example, in a cotton textile mill, yarn is produced from raw cotton and the same yarn is again used for manufacture of cloth. An intermediate product may also be a final product in the same factory. For example, if the yarn produced by the factory is sold as yarn, it becomes a final product and not an intermediate product. If however, a part of the yarn produced by a factory is consumed by it for manufacture of cloth, that part of the yarn so used will be an intermediate product.
BLOCK I: INPUT ITEMS – directly imported items only (consumed) - Information in this block is to be reported for all imported items consumed. The items are to be imported by the factory directly or otherwise. The instructions for filling up of this block are same as those for Block H. All imported goods irrespective of whether they are imported directly by the unit or not, should be recorded in Block I. Moreover, any imported item, irrespective of whether it is a basic item for manufacturing or not, should be recorded in Block I. Hence 'consumable stores' or 'packing items', if imported, should be recorded in Block I and not in Block H.
BLOCK J: PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS (manufactured by the unit) - In this block information like quantity manufactured, quantity sold, gross sale value, excise duty, sales tax paid and other distributive expenses, per unit net sale value and ex-factory value of output will be furnished by the factory item by item. If the distributive expenses are not available product-wise, the details may be given on the basis of reasonable estimation.
Data submitted by the factories undergo manual scrutiny at different stages.
1) They are verified by field staff of NSSO from factory records.
2) Verified returns are manually scrutinized by senior level staff before sending to data processing centre.
3) At the data processing centre these are scrutinized before data entry.
4) The entered data are subjected to computer editing and corrections.
5) Tabulated data are checked for anomalies and consistency with previous results.
Inspection plays a very important role in reducing non-sampling errors. To have quality in ASI data, the fieldwork needs to be inspected by officers at different levels. In doing so the norms laid out by the Headquarters for Group A officers must be strictly adhered to. These inspections may be concurrent or non-concurrent. However, non-concurrent inspection is to be normally preferred and conducted. Immediately after conducting an inspection, a suitable inspection note is to be drawn on the prescribed format and handed over to the officers concerned on next working day. It will be desirable to pinpoint in the inspection note, the mistakes noticed and suggest remedial measures to avoid the recurrence of such errors in future. The findings of the inspections of different supervisory officers should also be discussed in the monthly meeting for refining the concept of the S.Os on ASI.
Scrutiny of the filled-in-returns is another important measure for maintaining quality of ASI data. It also facilitates taking immediate steps to apprise the concerned field worker about the mistakes committed by him. Therefore, the scrutiny work is to be taken up immediately after the S.O. has submitted the schedules to other S.O. He/She should scrutinise thoroughly all the returns submitted in accordance with the scrutiny instructions issued by the headquarters from time to time. The scrutiniser S.O. is required to note down the scrutiny points including arithmetical check, identification details/discrepancies noticed on the prescribed scrutiny sheet. The compiler S.Os are required to furnish the clarifications on the scrutiny points promptly. On receipt of the clarifications, the concerned officers should examine and incorporate corrections, if any, in the returns and attach the clarification with the office copy.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Relative Standard Error (RSE) is calculated in terms of worker, wages to worker and GVA using the formula (Pl ease refer to Estimation Procedure document in external resources).
To check for consistency and reliability of data the same are compared with the NIC-2digit level growth rate at all India Index of Production (IIP) and the growth rates obtained from the National Accounts Statistics at current and constant prices for the registered manufacturing sector.
Deputy Director General
Computer Center, Ministry of Statistics and P.I
Deputy Dtrector General
CSO(IS Wing), Kolkata, Ministry of Statistics and P.I
ASI Processing and Report
Deputy Director General, CSO (IS Wing) 1, Council House Street, Kolkata
Deputy Director General, Computer Centre, East Block-10, R K Puram, New Delhi
Deputy Director, Computer Centre, East Block-10, R K Puram, New Delhi
The ASI data at factory level are strictly confidential and are to be used only for statistical purposes after aggregation.
The collection of Statistics Act assures confidentiality of the data to the factories.
To ensure confidentiality, data of factories with less than three units in an industry are merged. Location of the unit is also not divulged in the micro data.
Data is chargeable. Access conditions, policies and procedures are detailed on the home page of the Microdata Archive.
ASI Survey 2012-13, provided by CSO(IS Wing) Kolkata.
Location of Data Collection
MOSPI Microdata Archive
Archive where study is originally stored
Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation
Cost: Payment required
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorised distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.