This Anual household survey 2014/15 (AHS III) is third of its kind.
Annual Household Survey 2014/15 (AHS III) is the third of its kind. AHS is conducted to provide estimations of some major socio-economic indicators on an annual basis, which would not be possible with other periodic surveys like Nepal Labour Force Surveys (NLFS) and Nepal Living Standards Surveys (NLSS) which are undertaken at longer intervals. The survey basically aims to provide estimates of consumption and labour force for Nepal by sex, urban-rural area and consumption quintiles/deciles. Although the major thrust of AHS is on consumption and employment situations, other sectors like education, housing and demographic characteristics are also included.
This survey (AHS III) has used sampling frame of the National Population Census 2011 that has provided the list of wards with the number of households. It has enumerated a total of 288 sample Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) (143 in urban and 145 in rural). The total sample household was 4,320 (2,145 from urban PSU and 2,175 from rural PSU).
A survey was conducted in 10 months from September 2014 to July 2015. Different PSUs of strata were enumerated at different months. Demographic information was collected as of the date of the survey. The reference period of food consumption was a week (last seven days) prior to the date of enumeration. The data of last 7 days was annualized. Non-food consumption and consumer durables refer to the last 12 months from the date of the survey. Questions on time use in economic and non-economic activities of the last seven days were asked for all household members of age 5 years and above.
The general objective of the survey is to provide data required to monitor annual changes in employment, consumption and other socio-economic indicators of Nepal. The specific objectives of the survey are:
1. To measure the changes in the structure and the level of consumption expenditure of Nepalese households,
2. To collect data required to measure annual changes in the indicators of employment, unemployment and underemployment, and
3. To provide other socio-economic information useful for economic planning and annual budgeting.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v1: Final Data for public access.
The scope of the survey, based on the objectives above, covers topics such as consumption expenditure, employment and unemployment, time use in economic, non-economic and extended economic activities, housing and household facilities, demography, literacy and educational attainment.
The survey covers the whole country (National), Ecological belts (Mountain, Hill, Terai) and, rural and urban.
- All households in the country determined on the basis of the usual place of their residence (de jure househols). The households of diplomatic missions, the institutional households (like people living in schools hostels, prisons, army camps and hospitals) were excluded from the survey.
- All persons aged 5 years and above household members.
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Planning Commission Secratariat, Government of Nepal
Government of Nepal
United Nations Development Programme
A complete list of wards with number of the households provided by the ward/Enumeration Area (EA) level household data of the National Population Census 2011 was used as the sampling frame for the survey. In 2015, 72 new municipalities were formed, which on adding to the existing 58 municipalities become a total of 130 municipalities. In order to avoid extremity of the size of wards, some big wards were segregated into blocks or enumeration areas (EAs). The sampling frame contained 4,861 EAs in urban and 36,181 EAs in rural areas making a total of 41,042 EAs in Nepal.
It was expected to take 300 primary sampling units (PSUs) for AHS III. But as within the survey period, major earthquake and its aftershocks affected several districts, 12 PSUs were not enumerated. Hence, AHS III covered a total of 288 sample PSUs (143 PSUs in urban and 145 PSUs in rural areas). The total sample household was 4,320 (2,145 from urban and 2,175 from rural) taking 15 households from each selected PSUs. In AHS II the sample size was 3,000 households.
The survey aimed to provide estimates for Nepal as well as urban and rural area, and accordingly, the population was stratified into urban and rural area. Wards or sub-wards (EAs) were the primary sampling units (PSUs). The numbers of PSUs to be selected were 150 from rural and 150 from urban area making a total of 300 PSUs. The sample size was determined on the basis of the sampling variance of previous surveys. PSUs were selected on the basis of probability proportional to the size (PPS), the measure of the size being the number of households in each ward. Selected PSUs were spread over 65 districts.
Households were the ultimate sampling units (USUs) and were selected with equal probability on the basis of two-stage systematic random sampling technique. Fifteen (15) households were selected from each PSUs. Altogether 4320 households were selected for the interview.
In a nutshell, procedures followed to select sample households were:
1. selection of PSUs based on PPS from the frame,
2. listing of households in the selected PSU, and
3. selection of USUs from the updated list of households in the selected PSU.
The survey enumerated 288 (96%) sample households from 300 primary sampling unit.143 PSUs out of 150 PSUs of rural area and 145 PSUs out of 150 PSUs of urban area. Thus, in total 4320 (96%) households(2145 from urban and 2175 from rural) were enumerated in the survey.
The sampling weights for urban and rural domain is calculated separately. In rural domain, data collection was conducted only at 150 PSUs so that actual value of the weight of this domain equals 832.37. In Urban domain, data collection was conducted only at 150 PSUs so that actual value of the weight of this domain equals 1672.58.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
In the AHS 2014/15, total 33 Statistics Office of district were constructed at the field level. Each team consisted of one supervisor and two interviewers. Among them, supervisor was responsible for coordinating, supervising and monitoring the field work as a team leader. In addition, he was in charge of completing the community questionnaire, selecting the sampled household, checking and correcting the filled- in-questionnaires and doing data entry activities. Besides the day to day field supervision by the team leader, there was a provision of supervision from the CBS (central level) as well as from Statistics Offices. Central level supervisory visits by the core team members of the Household Survey Section carried out immediately after the start of the field work. At times, central observations were done by the Director General and Deputy Director General of the Central Bureau of Statistics.
Data Collection Notes
First and second annual household survey (AHS) were conducted in team base. But this third round AHS was conducted by statistics offices (SO). CBS household survey section had selected 300 PSUs samples. The numbers of PSUs to be selected were 150 from rural and 150 from urban area making a total of 300 PSUs. Selected PSUs were spread over 65 districts. Selected samples list sent to SOs under their working area. SOs managed all field work activities. The training of SOs officers and the field workers were managed all together 10 working days in total. All participants were divided into two groups and two concurrent sessions were executed. Different methods of training were adopted including study of the questionnaire and reference manual, classroom session, class exercise session, mock interviews and field practices and discussions. The core team members of the project had conducted the training. To ensure the perfectness in the data entry independently, supervisors were given access to the laptop having installed data entry program for practice since the first day of the training. During this practice, they were instructed personally by a computer officer who himself had developed the data entry program. On the last day, data entry training program was organized jointly for all participants by grouping them different teams. To collect data in the AHS, SOs were constructed teams according to their workload at the field level. Each team consisted of one supervisor and two interviewers. A survey was conducted in 10 months from September 2014 to July 2015. Different PSUs of strata were enumerated at different months. After the completion of some PSU, a 5-day review meeting was conducted in two places. Besides the day to day field supervision by the team leader, there was a provision of supervision from the CBS (central level) as well as from Statistics Offices. For this purpose a 5-days workshop com training program was executed for Statistics Office heads. Central level supervisory visits by the core team members of the Household Survey Section carried out immediately after the start of the field work.
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Planning Commission Secretariat, GoN
The contents of the questionnaire are basically guided by the objectives of the survey. The questionnaire mainly contained household information and individual information. Part 1 of the questionnaire included
individual level information using roster and covered questions on demographic characteristics, migration, literacy/education, etc. Parts 2, 3 and 4 covered household level information that consisted of housing, food and non-food consumption expenditure consumption of durables and own account production respectively The last section deals with current economic activity or labour force. The food consumption part of the questionnaire has covered broad food categories only. The household consumption part of the questionnaire has been designed in line with that of Nepal Living Standards Survey. Likewise, for the labour force part, it has followed the structure of Nepal Labour Force Survey 2008, but in current basis only. while part 5 included individual information on economic activities.
Data entry and data verification of Annual Household Survey 2014-2015 was conductaed at field. For this task, a simple and clear data entry programme was developed in CSPro software, and each team was given a personal computer having the entry program so that every team could be able to enter the interviewed household data in the respective field area. In other words, data entry and data verification work was done in the field residing in the corresponding PSU. Therefore both mannual and batch editing was carried out and CSPro programme was used for consistancy checking.
Data entry and data verification work was done in the field residing in the corresponding PSU using laptop. Entered data was collected on monthly basis and filled-in-questionnaires were gathered from all data collection teams of the Statistics Office. Data processing and analysis was done in the CBS using STATA software package.
Central Bureau of Statistics
Director of Publication, Dissemination and Library Section
Central Bereau of Statistics
Confidentiality of the respondents is guaranteed by article 8 of Statistics Act 1958.estriction on publication of information and details Any information or details relating to any person, family, firm or company, which have been supplied, obtained or prepared pursuant to Section 3 or Section 4 or Section 5 or Section 6 or Section 7 or any part of such information or details, shall not be disclosed or published directly except to the Director General or to any other officer of the Bureau without the written permission of the person or of his or her authorized representative supplying such information or details.
The dataset has been anonymized and is available as a Public Use Dataset from CBS premises. It is accessible to all users for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of the Central Bureau of Statistics.
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CBS.
4. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the CBS or among data from the CBS and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the CBS will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
6. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the CBS.
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Nepal. Annual Household Survey of Nepal 2014-2015. Dataset downloaded from National Data Archive (NADA): http://cbs.gov.np/nada/index.php/catalog on [date], or obtained from CBS, Nepal on [date].
Location of Data Collection
Central Bureau of Statistics
Archive where study is originally stored
Central Bureau of Statistics
Disclaimer and copyrights
The Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal bears no responsibility for any outcomes or for interpretations or inferences arising from the use of the dataset, or use of the information provided on the study.
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