Household Expenditure and Income Survey 2008, Economic Research Forum (ERF) Harmonization Data
Income/Expenditure/Household Survey [hh/ies]
The Department of Statistics in Jordan has conducted a series of Expenditure and Income Surveys during the years 1966, 1980, 1986/1987, 1992, 1997, 2002/2003, 2006/2007 and 2008/2009.
The main objective of the HEIS survey is to obtain detailed data on household expenditure and income, linked to various demographic and socio-economic variables, to enable computation of poverty indices and determine the characteristics of the poor and prepare poverty maps. Therefore, to achieve these goals, the sample had to be representative on the sub-district level. The raw survey data provided by the Statistical Office was cleaned and harmonized by the Economic Research Forum, in the context of a major research project to develop and expand knowledge on equity and inequality in the Arab region. The main focus of the project is to measure the magnitude and direction of change in inequality and to understand the complex contributing social, political and economic forces influencing its levels. However, the measurement and analysis of the magnitude and direction of change in this inequality cannot be consistently carried out without harmonized and comparable micro-level data on income and expenditures. Therefore, one important component of this research project is securing and harmonizing household surveys from as many countries in the region as possible, adhering to international statistics on household living standards distribution. Once the dataset has been compiled, the Economic Research Forum makes it available, subject to confidentiality agreements, to all researchers and institutions concerned with data collection and issues of inequality.
Data collected through the survey helped in achieving the following objectives:
1. Provide data weights that reflect the relative importance of consumer expenditure items used in the preparation of the consumer price index
2. Study the consumer expenditure pattern prevailing in the society and the impact of demograohic and socio-economic variables on those patterns
3. Calculate the average annual income of the household and the individual, and assess the relationship between income and different economic and social factors, such as profession and educational level of the head of the household and other indicators
4. Study the distribution of individuals and households by income and expenditure categories and analyze the factors associated with it
5. Provide the necessary data for the national accounts related to overall consumption and income of the household sector
6. Provide the necessary income data to serve in calculating poverty indices and identifying the poor chracteristics as well as drawing poverty maps
7. Provide the data necessary for the formulation, follow-up and evaluation of economic and social development programs, including those addressed to eradicate poverty
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Version 01: A cleaned and a harmonized version of survey datasets, produced by the Economic Research Forum for dissemination.
All documentation available for the original survey, whether provided by the Statistical Office or generated by the Economic Research Forum, have been published. However, as far as the datasets are concerned, the Economic Research Forum produces and releases only the harmonized versions in both SPSS and STATA formats.
Household: Includes geographic, social, and economic characteristics of households, namely, household composition, dwelling characteristics, ownership of assets indicators, heads' and spouses' characteristics, annual household expenditure and income.
Individual: Includes demographic, education, labor and health characteristics, as well as annual income for household members identified as earners.
The survey covered a national sample of households and all individuals permanently residing in surveyed households.
Producers and sponsors
Department of Statistics
Economic Research Forum
The 2008 Household Expenditure and Income Survey sample was designed using two-stage cluster stratified sampling method. In the first stage, the primary sampling units (PSUs), the blocks, were drawn using probability proportionate to the size, through considering the number of households in each block to be the block size. The second stage included drawing the household sample (8 households from each PSU) using the systematic sampling method. Fourth substitute households from each PSU were drawn, using the systematic sampling method, to be used on the first visit to the block in case that any of the main sample households was not visited for any reason.
To estimate the sample size, the coefficient of variation and design effect in each subdistrict were calculated for the expenditure variable from data of the 2006 Household Expenditure and Income Survey. This results was used to estimate the sample size at sub-district level, provided that the coefficient of variation of the expenditure variable at the sub-district level did not exceed 10%, with a minimum number of clusters that should not be less than 6 at the district level, that is to ensure good clusters representation in the administrative areas to enable drawing poverty pockets.
It is worth mentioning that the expected non-response in addition to areas where poor families are concentrated in the major cities were taken into consideration in designing the sample. Therefore, a larger sample size was taken from these areas compared to other ones, in order to help in reaching the poverty pockets and covering them.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Interviewing was conducted by teams of interviewers. Each interviewing team comprised of 3 interviewers, a field editor, a supervisor, and a driver. The role of the supervisor was to coordinate data collection activities, including management of the field teams, supplies and equipment, finances, maps and listings, coordinate with local authorities concerning the survey plan, and make arrangements for accommodation and travel. Additionally, the field supervisor assigned the work to the interviewers, spot checked work, maintained field control documents, and sent completed questionnaires and progress reports to the central office.
Data Collection Notes
A plan to train the interviewers, supervisors and inspectors was prepared which covered the survey objectives, data collection procedures, confidentiality of data, and how to deal with the households and overcome expected difficulties during various stages. The training program also included detailed explanation of the questionnaires' inputs, used concepts and instructions related to data collection and field editing.
Department of Statistics
List of survey questionnaires:
(1) General Form
(2) Expenditure on food commodities Form
(3) Expenditure on non-food commodities Form
The design and implementation of this survey procedures were:
1. Sample design and selection
2. Design of forms/questionnaires, guidelines to assist in filling out the questionnaires, and preparing instruction manuals
3. Design the tables template to be used for the dissemination of the survey results
4. Preparation of the fieldwork phase including printing forms/questionnaires, instruction manuals, data collection instructions, data checking instructions and codebooks
5. Selection and training of survey staff to collect data and run required data checkings
6. Preparation and implementation of the pretest phase for the survey designed to test and develop forms/questionnaires, instructions and software programs required for data processing and production of survey results
7. Data collection
8. Data checking and coding
9. Data entry
10. Data cleaning using data validation programs
11. Data accuracy and consistency checks
12. Data tabulation and preliminary results
13. Preparation of the final report and dissemination of final results
- The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to clean and harmonize the datasets
- The harmonization process started with cleaning all raw data files received from the Statistical Office
- Cleaned data files were then all merged to produce one data file on the individual level containing all variables subject to harmonization
- A country-specific program was generated for each dataset to generate/compute/recode/rename/format/label harmonized variables
- A post-harmonization cleaning process was run on the data
- Harmonized data was saved on the household as well as the individual level, in SPSS and converted to STATA format
Economic Research Forum
Economic Research Forum (ERF)
Economic Research Forum (ERF)
To access the micro-data, researchers are required to register on the ERF website and comply with the data access agreement. The data will be used only for scholarly, research, or educational purposes. Users are prohibited from using data acquired from the Economic Research Forum in the pursuit of any commercial or private ventures.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Department of Statistics, Jordan and the Economic Research Forum. Household Expenditure and Income Survey 2008, Economic Research Forum (ERF) Harmonization Data. Ref. JOR_2008_HEIS_v01_M_v01_A_ERF. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Economic Research Forum
Cleaning and Harmonizing raw data received from the Statistical Office
Development Economics Data Group
The World Bank
Revision of the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01 (May 2013). Version 02 (February 2016).