The main impetus for CRUMP rests upon the extraordinarily rapid migration now occurring from rural areas of Cambodia to the city of Phnom Penh and the need for policy-makers to understand the social aspects of this migration. With this in mind, the Ministry of Planning of the country of Cambodia, UNFPA and a foreign expert consultant from the University of California, San Francisco, came together to plan the project. Thus, CRUMP involves contributions from government, non-government and university entities. A group of individuals, which we call the CRUMP team, was brought together with representation from across these entities. The CRUMP team determined appropriate aims for the project and a plan and carry out the research and write this report. Methodological suggestions by individuals from the Ministry, UNFPA and from the foreign consultant were made, considered and discussed, and all three units are responsible for the final methodology.
Over the last two decades, migration to the city of Phnom Penh has been rapid. Cambodians have seen their capital grow by leaps and bounds every year. The growth accelerated in more recent years. We now boast a very vibrant and energetic capital city, with tremendous amenities. But, there is a need to carefully examine migrants coming into Phnom Penh to assure that their wellbeing is maintained as the city continues to develop. In addition, there is a need to carefully examine rural areas around the country from where migrants originate, and to investigate the impact of migration out of rural Cambodia to all other destinations. It is only through careful study that we will be able to prioritize programs and an overall strategy to meet the challenge of rapid migration.
The definition of migrant for this survey was an individual who was a regular household member that moved outside of the district of origin. This would include individuals that came back to the household of origin but moved away again and have been living away for at least three continuous months.
CRUMP involved an eighteen month undertaking, thorough planning and implementation, sophisticated analysis and careful writing. The work was conducted through a remarkable collaboration that involved the Ministry of Planning of the Royal Government of Cambodia, the UNFPA and Professor Zachary Zimmer from the University of California, San Francisco, USA. An enormous effort took place to assure that the survey conducted for this project was of high quality. The methodology and techniques that were applied to the CRUMP project are of the high quality and allow for us to draw upon the data and results for a follow-up study of migration.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v01, edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution
The CRUMP team began by developing a set of questions to be used as a framework for the project, help guide the methodology and assist in focusing the analysis. The following questions were posed:
1. What are the characteristics of urban migrants and their families?
2. What are the characteristics of rural migrant households from where migrants originate?
3. What are the reasons for migration?
4. Who is involved in migration decision-making?
5. What are the destinations of rural to urban migrants?
6. What are the overall benefits and consequences of rural to urban migration for migrants and their families, including impacts on socio-economic conditions?
7. What remittances get sent back to rural areas, do they differ by characteristics and destination of migrants, and how does this impact on the family at origin?
8. Are rural to urban migrants finding employment and if so in what sector?
9. What are the wages of migrants?
10. What types of conditions do migrants face in urban areas?
11. How does distance influence the consequences of migration?
12. What are the psychological and health effects of migration?
13. How does out-migration impact the sending village?
14. Do the implications of migration differ based upon characteristics of migrants, families, the places from which they come and the places to which they go?
15. Is there a difference between permanent and temporary or circular migrants and migration?
16. How does migration impact on migrants' children?
17. What are the implications of rural to urban migration for elderly living in rural areas?
While it is beyond the scope of the current report to comprehensively answer each these questions, this report delves into a good number. However, these questions, together with the project aims, were used to provide a framework for survey strategy and questionnaire development.
Rural and Urban.
The population for the Phnom Penh survey would include individuals that have permanently moved to the city of Phnom Penh from another province.
The population for the rural household survey would include both households that have and have not experienced the recent migration of a household member.
Producers and sponsors
Ministry of Planning
Royal Government of Cambodia
Professor Zachary Zimmer
University of California, San Francisco, USA
Guided the research and report production
United Nation Pupulation Fund
Royal Government of Cambodia
The sampling procedure is the following: (1) The rural household component took place in 375 villages with 1,500 surveys of households designated as non-migrant and 3,000 surveys of households designated as migrant. (2) The rural village component consisting of surveys of the 375 village chiefs from the villages selected for the rural household component. (3) The Phnom Penh component consisting of 1,000 surveys of recent migrants living in urban Phnom Penh.
The latest sampling frame is from the general population census of Cambodia, 2008 conducted by the National Institute of Statistics (NIS). It was employed for this survey. This frame consists of province codes and names, district codes and names, commune codes and names, village codes and names and a national map showing boundaries between the villages as well as total number of households within villages. All villages are classified as belonging to the urban or rural sector based on the new 'Reclassification of Urban and Rural Areas in Cambodia'. The coverage of the survey entailed rural areas in 23 provinces and the urban area of Phnom Penh. The coverage percentage for each component compared to the sampling frame is about 0.2% for the combination of non-migrant and migrant households in rural areas, about 3.0% for villages and village chiefs, and about 0.6% for urban Phnom Penh migrants.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Supervisors examined questionnaires immediately after completion. Interviewers returned to the household if necessary to complete missing items or repair errors. All attempts were made to leave the sampled villages with surveys that were as clean and complete as possible.
Data Collection Notes
September 30, 2011. The collection was organized and administered by the Ministry of Planning and the National Institute of Statistics in Phnom Penh. Teams were developed based on the personnel that has worked on the Cambodian Census and several Cambodian Socio-Economic Surveys. Eighteen teams were constructed with a total of 101 interviewers. The Phnom Penh survey was conducted by three teams and a total of 18 persons. The rural surveys were conducted by the other 15 teams and a total of 83 persons. Each team consisted of one supervisor and five interviewers except for a couple of exceptions.
In rural areas, teams entered sampled villages. Interviewers were provided with selected households for enumeration. Enumeration determined whether the household was a migrant or non-migrant household. After enumeration, interviews were conducted. We attempted to interview the head of the household, but interviewed others if the head was not available.
In Phnom Penh, which is also administratively divided into villages, households were sampled and interviewers began with an enumeration. Households determined to have a recent migrant were eligible for the survey. One migrant from all recent migrants in the household was selected.
National Institude of Statistics Staff
Among other things, the questionnaire for this survey would be used to determine the motivations for migration, the impact of migration on the sending household, as well as the destination of migrants and differences in destination on migration experiences, remittances and other aspects of migration. The questionnaire for the migrant and non-migrant households would be identical except for the absence of questions about the migrant and migration experience in the case of the latter.
The village chief survey would be used to get a broader look at migration and its impacts at a level beyond the individual or household. The village chiefs would come from the same villages that were sampled for the rural household survey. This survey would ask questions about number of migrants coming and going from the village, the overall impact of migration on the village according to an informed person, as well as gather information about the village itself so that issues such as the impact of village amenities or distance to highways or provincial capitals on the tendency to migrate could be examined.
Questionnaires were developed through a collaboration effort across the research team. Many questionnaire items were borrowed from surveys conducted elsewhere in the world, in addition to surveys conducted in Cambodia, such as the Cambodian Socio-economic Surveys and the 2004 Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia (Knodel, Kim, Zimmer, & Puch, 2005). Items were discussed and altered to suit the Cambodian context and purpose of CRUMP.
Data entry and cleaning took place in October and November of 2011. Data editing, coding and cleaning involved the work of two supervisors and 32 data entry operators. Data processing used the Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro) for developing data entry and data cleaning programs. CSPro is a software package for entering, editing, tabulating, and disseminating data from censuses and surveys. CSPro combines the features of the Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) and the Integrated System for Survey Analysis (ISSA).
National Institute of Statistics
Director, Census Department
The Statistics Law Article 22 specifies matters of confidentiality. It explicitly says that all staff working with statistics within the Government of Cambodia "shall ensure confidentiality of all individual information obtained from respondents, except under special circumstances with the consent of the Minister of Planning. The information collected under this Law is to be used only for statistical purposes."
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Ministry of Planning, Royal Government of Cambodia. Cambodia - Rural Urban Migration Project (CRUMP) 2011, Ref. KHM_2011_CRUMP_v01_M Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date]
Location of Data Collection
National Institute of Statistics (NIS)
Archive where study is originally stored
National Institute of Statistics (NIS)
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.