The Continuous Multi-purpose Survey (CMS) was launched in May 2009 with the aim of providing timely data to enable the production of socio-economic indicators on an annual basis. Each round of the survey collected the same core data on household members' characteristics such as age, sex and marital status. In its second year (July 2010 to June 2011) a module on Household Budget Survey (HBS), also known as Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES), was incorporated with a focus to collect detailed household consumption, expenditure and income data.
The 2017/2018 CMS/HBS was administered between January 2017 and February 2018 and covered 4,295 households. The 2017/2018 CMS/HBS captured consumption data more comprehensively than previous HBS because it included several improvements in the survey instruments. The 2017/2018 survey included fewer diary days (i.e., 7 days vs. 30 days), which likely reduced the “survey fatigue” effect (i.e., respondents are less likely to complete a survey that includes many questions and span over a long period of time). In addition, the 2017/2018 CMS/HBS included other improvements that improved data quality such as a more detailed close-ended module for non-food expenditures and a food consumption module, a detailed module to capture individual consumption and expenditures away from home. The improvements in the 2017/2018 CMS/HBS allow for the construction of an improved definition of welfare.
The primary objective of the Continuous Multipurpose Household Survey 2017-2018, (CMS-HBS) was to provide a permanent platform for the collection of data relevant to compute socio-economic indicators. With rapid changes in the economy, it was not adequate to have updates once in five or ten years, hence the introduction of CMS-HBS. Each round of the survey collects the same core data on household members' characteristics (sex, age etc.), employment and consumption.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The 2017-18 Lesotho Continuous Multipurpose Household Survey covered the following topics:
- Household identification
- Demographic characteristics of household members
- Health status
- Expenditure on health services in the past year
- Health related behaviours
- Access to facilities
- Services within the village/ community
- Self-assessed well-being and security
- Sources of household income
- Social protection and pensions/ grants
- Housing, utilities and durable goods
- Household enterprises (non-agricultural
- Crops by parcels
- Crop disposition
- Information on household members who have sent money or goods to someone in a foreign country in the past 12 months
- Recent shocks to household welfare
- Food consumption in the past 7 days
- Personal consumption in the past 7 days
- Expenditures in the past 3 months
- Expenditures in the past 12 months
Producers and sponsors
Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Development and Planning, Government of the Kingdom of Lesotho
Provided technical Assistance in the review and redesign of the survey
Government of the Kingdom of Lesotho
The World Bank
The 2016 Census in Lesotho began on April 10th, 2016. The census team created a refreshed list of Census Enumeration Areas (EAs) and EA maps, and these data and maps were an excellent frame for the CMS-HBS/LMHS survey. The list of households from the census was the basis for selection in each EA.
• The survey conducted by 10 teams, each team visited 12 households in each of 36 EA's per year.
• Total sample size: 10 x 36 x 12 = 4320 households.
• The sample allocated into districts, this should deliver prevalence estimates with a maximum margin of error of:
- 2.3% at the national level (annual)
- 4.6% at the national level (quarterly)
- Between 5% (for Maseru) and 8% (for the smaller districts) at the district level (annual)
• The selection of the 360 EAs was taken from the 2016 census data once it became available at the EA level.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
Data Collection Notes
Fieldwork began on the CMS-HBS/ LMHS in January 2017. The field work for the LMHS is to be over 12months, with 10 field teams working for a year. A field team has one supervisor and three interviewers. Data capture is by CAPI by each interviewer.
The 2017-18 CMS-HBS questionnaire consists of 18 sections:
1A. Demographic characteristics.
1B. Demographic characteristics. information on parental survival
3A. Health status
3B. Expenditure on health services in the past year
3C. Health related behaviours
5A. Access to facilities
5A. Services within the village/ community.
6. Self - assessed well-being and security.
7. Sources of household income.
8. Social protection and pensions/ grants
9. Housing, utilities and durable goods
10. Household enterprises (non-agricultural)
11B. Crops by parcels
11C. Crop disposition
14B. Information on household members who have sent money or goods to
15. Recent shocks to household welfare
16. Food consumption in the past 7 days for hh members
17. Personal consumption in the past 7 days
18A. Expenditures in the past 7 days
18B. Expenditures in the past 3 months
18C. Expenditures in the past 12 months
Bureau of Statistics
Government of Lesotho
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.