UNICEF assists countries in collecting and analyzing data in order to fill data gaps for monitoring the situation of children and women through its international household survey initiative the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS).
MICS surveys are typically carried out by government organizations, with the support and assistance of UNICEF and other partners. Technical assistance and training for the surveys is provided through a series of regional workshops where experts from developing countries are trained on various aspects of MICS (questionnaire content, sampling and survey implementation, data processing, data quality and data analysis, and report writing and dissemination).
Since the mid-1990s, the MICS has enabled many countries to produce statistically sound and internationally comparable estimates of a range of indicators in the areas of health, education, child protection and HIV/AIDS. MICS findings have been used extensively as a basis for policy decisions and programme interventions, and for the purpose of influencing public opinion on the situation of children and women around the world.
MICS1 (1995) - The MICS was originally developed in response to the World Summit for Children to measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of mid-decade goals. The first round of MICS was conducted around 1995 in more than 60 countries.
MICS2 (2000) - A second round of surveys was conducted in 2000 (around 65 surveys), and resulted in an increasing wealth of data to monitor the situation of children and women. For the first time it was possible to monitor trends in many indicators and set baselines for other indicators.
MICS3 (2005-2006) - The third round of MICS, which was carried out in over 50 countries in 2005-06, has been an important data source for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals with 21 MDG indicators collected through MICS3 (particularly indicators related to health, education and mortality). MICS3 was also a monitoring tool for other international goals including the World Fit for Children, the UNGASS targets on HIV/AIDS and the Abuja targets for malaria.
MICS4 (2009-2011) - In response to an increased demand for data all over the world, starting from MICS4, UNICEF will be prepared to provide assistance to countries at more frequent intervals - every three years instead of every five years. This will provide the opportunity for countries to capture rapid changes in key indicators, particularly the MDGs.
The survey is a base-line study providing reference data. It is meant, in the first place, as a tool for planning, and not as a scientific study for academic reasons. The purpose is to obtain an accurate estimate about the health, nutrition, education, water and sanitation situation throughout Mozambique with particular emphasis on the situation of children and women.
The survey results are to assist national and provincial governmental authorities and other institutions who plan and monitor rehabilitation and development of social services in Mozambique. The results give an overview of the situation at national level, but allows also for comparison between provinces. However, it is beyond the scope of this survey to picture the situation at district and lower administrative levels.
The survey is a descriptive study. It reflects the actual situation as it was found during the time of data collection in August 1995, but it does not consider correlations to explain the findings.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
The scope of Mozambique 1995 MICS includes:
- Household listing
- Water and sanitation
- Salt iodization
- Tetanus Toxoid (TT)
- Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI)
- Oral rehydration therapy (ORT)
Producers and sponsors
Directorate of Statistics
Ministry of Planning and Finance
Section of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation
Unted Nations Children's Fund
Unted Nations Children's Fund
Registration of voters for the 1994 elections is used as sampling frame for the survey. Since 1980 no census has been held in Mozambique. no vital statistics have been collected and neither does there exist another nation-wide population registration except for voters registration for the elections held in October 1994. This registration shows the number of people who were listed for voting in a particular province, district, sub-district or locality. It has been estimated that approximately 80 per cent of the population eligible for voting. actually registered. It is unknown who the missing 20 per cent non-voters are, where they live and if they are mainiy illiterates, poor, rural, job-less Mozambicans or, if the majority of them are urban middle class, or peasants, etc. However, it is assumed that the "missing 20 percent" is equally distributed over the country and over all socioeconomic categories in society. The voters registration has therefore been considered the best possible choice to base the sampling on.
From all ten provinces and from Maputo city, equally sized samples were drawn. Based on the number of voters in each province and in Maputo city, "weights" were calculated for every sample. These weights were used to calculate national averages from the outcomes at provincial level and Maputo city. See Annex B of the report for provincial and Maputo city weights.
Five districts were randomly selected in each province applying the concept of Probability Proportional to Size (PPS). Four localities were randomly selected in every chosen district again using PPS. Per locality one neighbourhood. aldeia (rural) or batrro (urban). was selected at random. Finally. when the interview team arrived, the supervisor selected randomly in the neighbourhood one house as starting point to interview heads of household in the neighboring 30 houses. Such group of households is in the survey referred to as a "cluster".
Unfortunately, before field work started, no infonnation about population size of aldeias or bairros was available and the decision had to be taken that only one cluster could be selected at random per locality, irrespective its size. This made weighing of every cluster necessary.These weights have been used to calculate the survey results for provincial level. A detailed overview is given in Annex C of the report.
A sample size of 3690 households would have been sufficient to calculate national estimates with 95 per cent chance that the margin of error would be 5 per cent or smaller. In order to have a 10 per cent margin of error for provincial level estimates, 467 households were needed. Compensating for losses during data collection it was decided to increase the sample size at provincial level to 600. In summary, from 11 areas 55 districts have been selected, from where 220 localities and 220 clusters in aldeias and bairros (rural and urban neighbourhoods)with 6600 households were chosen. They have become the survey population.
A total of 6433 households were actually interviewed of the originally planned 6600.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
DNE of the MPF and the MOH selected 40 interviewers and 10 supervisors from among their personnel at central and provincial level. During two weeks interviewers and supervisors were brought together in Maputo, and trained in using the questionnaire, selecting households, and in solving logistical and administrative problems they were expected to face during field work. The questionnaire, and interviewers, were tested after the training by way of carrying out a pilot survey among households in Maputo city.
In every selected household, the head of the house was interviewed, and in case of his or her absence, the one next in charge. Answering questions and filling in the questionnaire took usually about 30 - 40 minutes including anthropometric measurement of under-five year old children.
Starting with sampling and fieldwork preparation in Maputo in May/June 1995, the interviewers and supervisors worked in the communities in July and August. These months are in the dry season which facilitated access. The circumstances under which it was carried out were extremely difficult because of geographical distances, problematic conununications, scarcity in transport facilities, and the almost total absence of basic population data. In some cases places were inaccessible due to land-mines or refusal by population based on cultural beliefs. The size of the survey gave an extra dimension to the difficulties faced during implementation.
A questionnaire is the most appropriate tool for collection of data in a big descriptive survey of which the results have to be generalized. Most questions asked in the MICS had been pre-tested and used before in a similar survey in Maputo city and some rural areas.
Vaccination and child age data were during the interviews retrieved from the road-to-health (RTH) cards, if available. The coverage rate in vaccination is solely based on RTH card data except vaccination of mothers against tetanus. Anthropometric measurements were carried out with portable salter scales and light weight (locally made) measuring boards. To measure iodine in salt households, the UNICEF test-kits were made available to the interviewers and their supervisors.
Data entry and cleaning procedures were carried out centrally in Maputo by DNE using the IMPS version 3.1 progranune. In close cooperation with DNE, data were analyzed at UNICEF where the draft report was written.
MICS Programme Manager
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download of the data files (for datasets obtained on-line)
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.