The 2003-04 Tanzania HIV/AIDS Indicator Survey is the first population-based, comprehensive survey on HIV/AIDS carried out in Tanzania.
The 2003-04 Tanzania HIV/AIDS Indicator Survey (THIS) is the first population-based, comprehensive survey on HIV/AIDS to be carried out in Tanzania. The survey was initiated by the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) with the purpose of getting national baseline data on the prevalence of HIV infection. The survey was not meant to replace the sentinel surveillance system undertaken by the Ministry of Health under its National AIDS Control Programme (NACP), but rather to form a basis for monitoring the national HIV/AIDS response.
The survey obtained information on knowledge/awareness, attitudes, and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS. The overall goal of the survey was to provide programme managers and policymakers involved in HIV/AIDS programmes with information needed to effectively plan and implement future interventions, including resource mobilisation and allocation.
More specifically, the objectives of the 2003-04 THIS were:
• To measure HIV prevalence among women and men aged 15-49;
• To assess levels and trends in knowledge about HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards those infected with the disease, and sexual behavioral practices;
• To collect information on the proportion of adults who are chronically sick, the extent of orphanhood, and care and support levels;
• To gauge the extent to which these indicators vary by characteristics of the individual such as age, sex, region, education, marital status and poverty status.
The 2003-04 THIS information is intended to provide data to assist policymakers and programme implementers to monitor and evaluate existing programmes and to design new strategies for combating the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania. The survey data will also be used to make population projections and to calculate indicators developed by the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS), the UNAIDS Programme, and the World Health Organisation (WHO). Questions on nonincome proxy indicators were also added to measure indicators developed for the Tanzania Poverty Monitoring Master Plan (United Republic of Tanzania, 2001).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of HIV/AIDS Indicator Survey 2003-2004 includes:
- HOUSEHOLD: Household schedule, Household characteristics, Support for vulnerable households
- INDIVIDUAL: Respondent's background, Reproduction, Marriage and sexual activity, Husband's background, HIV/AIDS, Other reproductive health issues, Blood spot collection
Tanzania Mainland only (Zanzibar excluded)
Producers and sponsors
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
Tanzania Commission for AIDS
U.S. Agency for International Development
Embassy of Ireland
The sample for the 2003-04 THIS covered the population residing in households in Tanzania Mainland only. Zanzibar was excluded from the survey because of a recent survey that included HIV/AIDS indicators. A representative probability sample of 6,900 households was selected for the THIS. This sample was constructed to allow separate estimates for some indicators for each of the 21 regions on the mainland, as well as for urban and rural areas separately. As a result of disproportionate sampling, the THIS sample is not self-weighting at the national level and weighting factors have been applied to the data in all tables, unless otherwise specified.
The THIS utilised a two-stage sample design. The first stage involved selecting sample points (clusters), consisting of enumeration areas delineated for the 2002 Population and Housing Census. A total of 345 clusters (87 urban and 258 rural) were selected. Sixteen clusters were selected in each region except Dar es Salaam, where 25 clusters were selected. NBS carried out a field operation in which all households living in the selected clusters were listed.
The second stage of selection involved the systematic sampling of households from these lists. A sample of 20 households was drawn from each cluster. All women and men aged 15-49 years who were either usual residents of the households in the sample or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey were eligible to be interviewed in the survey. In addition to the data collected through interviews, respondents were asked to provide few drops of blood for subsequent testing for HIV in the laboratory.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Two types of questionnaires were used in the survey, namely: the Household Questionnaire and the Individual Questionnaire. The contents of these questionnaires were based on model questionnaires developed by the MEASURE Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme. In consultation with TACAIDS, NACP and other government agencies and local organisations, NBS modified the DHS model questionnaires to reflect relevant issues on HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. The questionnaires were then translated from English into Kiswahili and were further refined after the pretest and training of the field staff.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, education and relationship to the head of the household. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview. The Household Questionnaire also collected non-income proxy indicators about the household's dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used for the floor, roof and walls of the house, ownership of various durable goods and land, and household food insecurity. The Household Questionnaire also included questions as to whether household members were seriously ill and whether anyone in the household had died in the past 12 months. In such cases, interviewers asked whether the household had received various kinds of care and support, such as financial assistance, medical support, or social or spiritual support.
The Individual Questionnaire was used to collect information from women and men aged 15-49 years and covered the following topics:
• Background characteristics (age, education, media exposure, employment, religion, etc.)
• Reproductive history (number of births and—for women—date of last birth, birth
registration, current pregnancy, and current family planning use)
• Marriage and sexual activity
• Husband’s background
• Knowledge about HIV/AIDS and exposure to specific HIV-related mass media programmes
• Attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS
• Knowledge and experience with HIV testing
• Knowledge and symptoms of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
All aspects of the THIS data collection were pre-tested in September 2003. A small team of field staff were trained for two weeks; the field staff then proceeded to conduct interviews in 180 households.
The lessons learned from the pretest were used to finalise the survey instruments and logistical arrangements for the survey.
The processing of the THIS results began in early January 2004. Completed questionnaires were returned periodically from the field to NBS offices in Dar es Salaam, where they were edited and entered by data processing personnel specially trained for this task. Data were entered using CSPro, a program specially developed for processing DHS surveys and censuses. All data were entered twice (100 percent verification). The concurrent processing of the data was a distinct advantage for data quality, since NBS was able to periodically run data quality checking tables and to advise field teams of errors detected. The data entry and editing of the questionnaires were completed in June 2004.
Laboratory testing of the blood samples started in mid-March 2004 and continued through September 2004. Results of each test plate were automatically entered into an Excel spreadsheet specially designed by DHS.
Data and Data Related Resources
MEASURE DHS believes that widespread access to survey data by responsible researchers has enormous advantages for the countries concerned and the international community in general. Therefore, MEASURE DHS policy is to release survey data to researchers after the main survey report is published, generally within 12 months after the end of fieldwork. with few limitations these data have been made available for wide use.
DISTRIBUTION OF DATASETS
MEASURE DHS is authorized to distribute, at no cost, unrestricted survey data files for legitimate academic research, with the condition that we receive a description of any research project that will be using the data.
Registration is required for access to data.
Datasets are available for download to all registered users, free of charge. To download datasets, you must first register online and request the country(ies) and datasets that you are interested in. When submitting a dataset request, users must include a brief description of how the data will be used.
Datasets are made available with the following conditions:
- Survey data files are distributed by MEASURE DHS for academic research/statistical analysis. Researchers need to provide a description of any research/analysis that will be using the data, before access is granted to the datasets.
- Once downloaded, the datasets must not be passed on to other researchers without the written consent of MEASURE DHS.
- All reports and publications based on the requested data must be sent to the MEASURE DHS Data Archive as a Portable Format Document (pdf) or a hard copy, for us to forward to the country(ies) whose data have been used.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
National Bureau of Statistics. Tanzania HIV/AIDS Indicator Survey (AIS) 2003-2004. Dataset downloaded from http://www.measuredhs.com on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.