The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 3 (MICS3) is the third round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1) and 2000 (MICS2). Many questions and indicators are consistent and compatible with the prior round of MICS (MICS2) but less so with MICS1, although there have been a number of changes in definition of indicators between rounds. Details can be found by reviewing the indicator definitions.
The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a household survey programme developed by UNICEF to assist countries in filling data gaps for monitoring human development in general and the situation of children and women in particular. MICS is capable of producing statistically sound, internationally comparable estimates of social indicators. The current round of MICS is focused on providing a monitoring tool for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the World Fit for Children (WFFC), as well as for other major international commitments, such as the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV/AIDS and the Abuja targets for malaria.
The 2005 Tajikistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has as its primary objectives:
- To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Tajikistan
- To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established in the Millennium Declaration, the goals of A World Fit For Children (WFFC), and other internationally agreed upon goals, as a basis for future action;
- To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Tajikistan and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems.
MICS questionnaires are designed in a modular fashion that can be easily customized to the needs of a country. They consist of a household questionnaire, a questionnaire for women aged 15-49 and a questionnaire for children under the age of five (to be administered to the mother or caretaker). Other than a set of core modules, countries can select which modules they want to include in each questionnaire.
The surveys was carried out by The State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of Tajikistan, with the support and assistance of UNICEF and other partners. Technical assistance and training for the surveys is provided through a series of regional workshops, covering questionnaire content, sampling and survey implementation; data processing; data quality and data analysis; report writing and dissemination.
Results from the surveys, including national reports, standard sets of tabulations and micro level datasets will all be made widely available after completion of the surveys. Results from the surveys will also be made available in DevInfo format. DevInfo v5.0 is a powerful database system which has been adapted from UNICEF's ChildInfo technology to specifically monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. MICS Results will also be available through UNICEF's web site dedicated to monitoring the situation of children and women at www.childinfo.org. Results of the prior round of MICS can already be found at this site.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Households (defined as a group of persons who usually live and eat together)
De jure household members (defined as memers of the household who usually live in the household, which may include people who did not sleep in the household the previous night, but does not include visitors who slept in the household the previous night but do not usually live in the household)
Women aged 15-49
Children aged 0-4
Version 1.0: Edited data used for drafting the final report
The Tajikistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey included the following modules in the questionnaires:
HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE : Household Listing, Education, Water and Sanitation, Household characteristics, Insecticide treated Net (ITN) , Child Labour, Child Discipline, Maternal Mortality, Salt Iodization
WOMEN'S QUESTIONNAIRE: Women's Characteristics, Child Mortality, Maternal and Newborn Health, Marriage and Union, Contraception, Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence, HIV knowledge, Tuberculosis
CHILDREN'S QUESTIONNAIRE: Children's Characteristics, Birth Registration and Early Learning, Child Development, Vitamin A, Breastfeeding, Care of Illness, Malaria, Immunization, Anthropometry.
Water and sanitation
Maternal and newborn health
Marriage and union
Attitudes towards domestic violence
Country Specific MICS Topics
Care of illness
Source and cost of supplies
The survey is nationally representative and covers the whole of Tajikistan.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged 15-49 years resident in the household, and all children aged 0-4 years (under age 5) resident in the household.
Producers and sponsors
State Committee on Statistics
UNICEF, Tajikistan Country Office
UNICEF Regional MICS coordinator
International technical assistance
UNICEF Regional M&E officer
International technical assistance
Strategic Information Section, Division of Policy and Planning, UNICEF NYHQ
International technical assistance
Implementation, workshops, printing, international consultant, equipment
Implementation, workshops, printing, international consultant
Implementation, workshops, printing, international consultant
Data collection field works, stationary
Data collection field works
Data collection field works
Organisation for economic co-operation and development
Financial and technical support in data archiving
The principal objective of the sample design was to provide current and reliable estimates on a set of indicators covering the four major areas of the World Fit for Children declaration, including promoting healthy lives; providing quality education; protecting against abuse, exploitation and violence; and combating HIV/AIDS. The population covered by the 2005-2006 MICS is defined as the universe of all women aged 15-49 and all children aged under 5. A sample of households was selected and all women aged 15-49 identified as usual residents of these households were interviewed. In addition, the mother or the caretaker of all children aged under 5 who were usual residents of the household were also interviewed about the child.The 2005 MICS collected data from a nationally representative sample of households, women and children. The primary focus of the 2005 MICS was to prodvide estimates of key population and health, education, child protection and HIV related indicators for the country as a whole, and for urban and rural areas separately. In additon, the sample was designed to provide estimates for each of the 5 regions for key indicators. Tajikistan is devided into 5 regions: Dushanbe (the capital), Direct Rule Districts (DRD), Sogd, Khatlon and Gorno Badakhshan (GBAO). Each of such division, for last census purposes, was further subdivided in convenient areas called “census section”, “instructor's sector” and “enumeration sector”(ESs). Each ES is either totally urban or rural. The list of ESs has census information on population information for each ES, and the ESs list are grouped by administrative unit. The size of the rural ES was 342 persons and the size of the urban ES was 378 persons. There were established 17923 ES in Tajikistan. The available demarcated cartographic material for each ES in localities with more than 5000 population made last census material as the most appropriate sample frame for the MICS2005.
The primary sampling unit (PSU) - or cluster - for the MICS2005 is defined on basis of ES from the 2000 census frame, as having one (or more) ES per PSU. The number of clusters selected in each region was not allocated proportional to the size of the region, but approximately equal number of clusters was allocated to each region due to the need to present estimates for each of the 5 regions. A total of 290 clasters and 6,960 households were selected. The primary sampling unit variable is the cluster (HH1). The sampling stratas can be identified using a combination of the region (HH7) and area (HH6) variables, e.g. stratum = HH7*10 + HH6.
A two-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample. The sampling domains are defined as urban and rural areas of each of the regions of Tajikistan. In the first stage, 290 PSU were selected in each stratum with equal probabilities. Within each cluster a fixed number of 24 households were selected. Updating of the list of households in each cluster was done prior to selection of the households. Since the distribution of clusters between sampling domains was not proportional to the census distribution of population and, consequently neither was the final household distribution, the sample is not self-weighting. For reporting national level results, sample weights are used.
Following standard MICS data collection rules, if a household was actually more than one household when visited, then a) if the selected household contained two households, both were interviewed, or b) if the selected household contained 3 or more households, then only the household of the person named as the head was interviewd.
No replacement of households was permitted in case of non-response or non-contactable households. Adjustments were made to the sampling weights to correct for non-response, according to MICS standard procedures.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in the sampling design document and the sampling appendix of the final report.
Deviations from the Sample Design
No major deviations from the original sample design were made. All sample enumeration areas were accessed and successfully interviewed with good response rates.
Of the 6.968 households selected for the sample, 6.961 were found to be occupied. Of these, 6.684 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 96 percent. In the interviewed households, 10.626 women (age 15-49) were identified. Of these, 10.243 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 96 percent. In addition, 4.370 children under the age of five were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 4.273 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98 percent. Overall response rates of 93 and 94 percent are calculated for the women's and under-5's interviews respectively.
The household response rates are slightly higher in rural than in urban areas, 97 compared to 94 percent. The response rates in Dushanbe are a little lower than in others regions, due to the busy lifestyle of the respondents living in the capital city. The lowest women's response rate is noted in GBAO region, 88 percent. Differences between number of sampled and occupied households almost does not exist, thanks to the previously updated household listings.
Sample weights were calculated for each of the datafiles.
Sample weights for the household data were computed as the inverse of the probability of selection of the household, computed at the sampling domain level (urban/rural within each region). The household weights were adjusted for non-response at the domain level, and were then normalized by a constant factor so that the total weighted number of households equals the total unweighted number of households. The household weight variable is called HHWEIGHT and is used with the HH data and the HL data.
Sample weights for the women's data used the un-normalized household weights, adjusted for non-response for the women's questionnaire, and were then normalized by a constant factor so that the total weighted number of women's cases equals the total unweighted number of women's cases.
Sample weights for the children's data followed the same approach as the women's and used the un-normalized household weights, adjusted for non-response for the children's questionnaire, and were then normalized by a constant factor so that the total weighted number of children's cases equals the total unweighted number of children's cases.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Interviewing was conducted by teams of interviewers. Each interviewing team comprised of 3 female interviewers, a field editor and a supervisor, and a driver. Each teams used a 4 wheel dirve vehicle to travel from cluster to cluster (and where necessary within cluster).
The role of the supervisor was to coordinator field data collection activities, including management of the field teams, supplies and equipment, finances, maps and listings, coordinate with local authorities concerning the survey plan and make arrangements for accomodation and travel. Additionally, the field supervisor assigned the work to the interviewers, spot checked work, maintained field control documents, and sent completed questionnaires and progress reports to the central office.
The field editor was responsible for reviewing each questionnaire at the end of the day, checking for missed questions, skip errors, fields incorrectly completed, and checking for inconsistencies in the data. The field editor also observed interviews and conducted review sessions with interviewers.
Responsibilities of the supervisors and field editors are described in the Instructions for Supervisors and Field Editors, together with the different field controls that were in place to control the quality of the fieldwork.
Field visits were also made by a team of central staff on a periodic basis during fieldwork. The senior staff of State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of the Tajikistan also made visits to field teams to provide support and to review progress.
Data Collection Notes
The pretest for the survey took place in urban and rural areas in a district close to Dushanbe during July 2005. and included 27 interviewers who would later become supervisors and editors for the main survey.
The data were collected by 14 teams; each was comprised of three female interviewers, one driver, one female editor/measurer and one supervisor. A total of 52 interviewers, 14 supervisors and 13 field editors were used. Data collection took place over a period of about 6 weeks from September 1, 2005 until October 17, 2005.
Interviews averaged 35 minutes for the household questionnaire (excluding salt testing), 23 minutes for the women's questionnaire, and 27 for the under five children's questionnaire (excluding the anthropometry). Interviews were conducted primarily in Tajik and Russian.
Senior staff from the State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of Tajikistan (SCS) and one national fieldwork coordinator coordinated and supervised the field work activities. The overall field coordinator was Kislitsyna Elena.
State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of the Tajikistan
The questionnaires for the Tajikistan MICS were structured questionnaires based on the MICS3 Model Questionnaire with some modifications and additions. A household questionnaire was administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age, relationship, and orphanhood status. The household questionnaire includes Household Listing, Education, Water and Sanitation, Household characteristics, Insecticide treated Net (ITN) , Child Labour, Child Discipline, Maternal Mortality, and Salt Iodization.
In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49 and children under age five. For children, the questionnaire was administered to the mother or caretaker of the child.
The women's questionnaire include Women's Characteristics, Child Mortality, Maternal and Newborn Health, Marriage and Union, Contraception, Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence, HIV knowledge, and Tuberculosis knowledge.
The children's questionnaire includes Children's Characteristics, Birth Registration and Early Learning, Child Development, Vitamin A, , Breastfeeding, Care of Illness, Malaria, Immunization, and Anthropometry.
The questionnaires were developed in Russian from the MICS3 Model Questionnaires, and were translated into Tajik. After an initial review the questionnaires were translated back into English by an independent translator with no prior knowledge of the survey. The back translation from the Russian version was independently reviewed and compared to the English original. Differences in translation were reviewed and resolved in collaboration with the original translators.
The Tajik and Russian questionnaires were both piloted as part of the survey pretest.
All questionnaires and modules are provided as external resources.
Data were processed in clusters, with each cluster being processed as a complete unit through each stage of data processing. Each cluster goes through the following steps:
1) Questionnaire reception
2) Office editing and coding
3) Data entry
4) Structure and completeness checking
5) Verification entry
6) Comparison of verification data
7) Back up of raw data
8) Secondary editing
9) Edited data back up
After all clusters are processed, all data is concatenated together and then the following steps are completed for all data files:
10) Export to SPSS in 4 files (hh - household, hl - household members, wm - women, ch - children under 5)
11) Recoding of variables needed for analysis
12) Adding of sample weights
13) Calculation of wealth quintiles and merging into data
14) Structural checking of SPSS files
15) Data quality tabulations
16) Production of analysis tabulations
Details of each of these steps can be found in the data processing documentation, data editing guidelines, data processing programs in CSPro and SPSS, and tabulation guidelines. Please see http://www.childinfo.org/mics/mics3/manual.php
Twelve data entry operators entered data using the CSPro software into twelve microcomputers. Two data entry supervisors supervised the whole process. All data entry was conducted at the State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of the Tajikistan head office using manual data entry. For data entry, CSPro version 2.6.007 was used with a highly structured data entry program, using system controlled approach, that controlled entry of each variable. All range checks and skips were controlled by the program and operators could not override these. A limited set of consistency checks were also included inthe data entry program. In addition, the calculation of anthropometric Z-scores was also included in the data entry programs for use during analysis. Open-ended responses ("Other" answers) were not entered or coded, except in rare circumstances where the response matched an existing code in the questionnaire.
Structure and completeness checking ensured that all questionnaires for the cluster had been entered, were structurally sound, and that women's and children's questionnaires existed for each eligible woman and child.
100% verification of all variables was performed using independent verification, i.e. double entry of data, with separate comparison of data followed by modification of one or both datasets to correct keying errors by original operators who first keyed the files.
After completion of all processing in CSPro, all individual cluster files were backed up before concatenating data together using the CSPro file concatenate utility.
Data editing took place at a number of stages throughout the processing (see Other processing), including:
a) Office editing and coding
b) During data entry
c) Structure checking and completeness
d) Secondary editing
e) Structural checking of SPSS data files
Detailed documentation of the editing of data can be found in the data processing guidelines found in the MICS manual (please see http://www.childinfo.org/mics/mics3/manual.php)
For tabulation and analysis SPSS versions 14.0 was used.
After transferring all files to SPSS, certain variables were recoded for use as background characteristics in the tabulation of the data, including grouping age, education, geographic areas as needed for analysis. In the process of recoding ages and dates some random imputation of dates (within calculated constraints) was performed to handle missing or "don't know" ages or dates. Additionally, a wealth (asset) index of household members was calculated using principal components analysis, based on household assets, and both the score and quintiles were included in the datasets for use in tabulations.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: 1) non-sampling errors and 2) sampling errors. Non-sampling errors are the results of mistakes made in the implementation of data collection and data processing. Numerous efforts were made during implementation of the 2005 MICS to minimize this type of error, however, non-sampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents to the 2005 MICS is only one of many possible samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differe somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability in the results of the survey between all possible samples, and, although, the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. The sampling erros are measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean or percentage), which is the square root of the variance. Confidence intervals are calculated for each statistic within which the true value for the population can be assumed to fall. Plus or minus two standard errors of the statistic is used for key statistics presented in MICS, equivalent to a 95 percent confidence interval.
If the sample of respondents had been a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulae for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2005 MICS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and consequently needs to use more complex formulae. The SPSS complex samples module has been used to calculate sampling errors for the 2005 MICS. This module uses the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. This method is documented in the SPSS file CSDescriptives.pdf found under the Help, Algorithms options in SPSS.
Sampling errors have been calculated for a select set of statistics (all of which are proportions due to the limitations of the Taylor linearization method) for the national sample, urban and rural areas, and for each of the five regions. For each statistic, the estimate, its standard error, the coefficient of variation (or relative error -- the ratio between the standard error and the estimate), the design effect, and the square root design effect (DEFT -- the ratio between the standard error using the given sample design and the standard error that would result if a simple random sample had been used), as well as the 95 percent confidence intervals (+/-2 standard errors).
Details of the sampling errors are presented in the sampling errors appendix to the report and in the sampling errors table presented in the external resources.
A series of data quality tables and graphs are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
Age distribution of the household population
Age distribution of eligible women and interviewed women
Age distribution of eligible children and children for whom the mother or caretaker was interviewed
Age distribution of children under age 5 by 3 month groups
Age and period ratios at boundaries of eligibility
Percent of observations with missing information on selected variables
Presence of mother inthe household and person interviewed for the under 5 questionnaire
School attendance by single year age
Sex ratio at birth among children ever born, surviving and dead by age of respondent
Distribution of women by time since last birth
Scatterplot of weight by height, weight by age and height by age
Graph of male and female population by single years of age
The results of each of these data quality tables is shown in the appendix of the final report and is also given in the external resources section.
The general rule for presentation of missing data in the final report tabulations is that a column is presented for missing data if the percentage of cases with missing data is 1% or more. Cases with missing data on the background characteristics (e.g. education) are included in the tables, but the missing data rows are suppressed and noted at the bottom of the tables in the report (not in the SPSS output, however).
State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of the Tajikistan
MICS Programme Manager
Agency on Statistics
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Survey datasets are distributed at no cost for legitimate research, with the condition that we receive an abstract or a detailed description of any research project that will be using the data prior to authorizing their distribution. Copies of all reports and publications based on the requested data must be sent to State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of the Tajikistan (www.stat.tg) and UNICEF.
Requests for access to the datasets may be made through the website www.childinfo.org.
State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of the Tajikistan, Tajikistan. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey: Household , household listing, women and children's files, 2005 [Computer file]. Dushanbe, Tajikistan: State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of the Tajikistan [producer], 2006. Dushanbe, Tajikistan: State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of the Tajikistan and New York: Strategic Information Section, Division of Policy and Planning, UNICEF [distributors], 2006.
Disclaimer and copyrights
State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of the Tajikistan and UNICEF provide these data to external users without any warranty or responsibility implied. State Committee on Statistics of the Republic of Tajikistan and UNICEF accepts no responsibility for the results and/or implications of any actions resulting from the use of these data.
DDI Document ID
Strategic Marketing Research, Belgrade
Data producer and customization of generic template
Blancroft Research International
Producer of generic example
Customisation of MICS archive for childinfo.org
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01 (October 2011) - Slightly edited version of UNICEF's DDI ref. DDI-TJK-SCS-MICS2005/1.0-v0.1