Dietary strategies to reduce chronic iron deficiency anemia are still lacking for the rural poor in most developing countries. This study of 60 households (30 irrigated zone, 30 rainfed zone) in northern Afghanistan emphasized women’s seasonal food consumption and the relationships between household capacities and consumption. In both zones, iron-rich foods and foods affecting iron bioavailability were consumed in summer and winter diets. Households in the irrigated zone had more capacity for cultivation, food preservation and social networking in addition to owning more total livestock and food animals. Rainfed zone households scored higher on food preservation knowledge. Iron-rich food consumption was strongly associated with social networking and food preservation capacities, but weakly with socioeconomic proxies. Social networking showed no relationships to socioeconomic proxies. Agroecozone, social customs and food combinations should be considered in the design of health and food security programs to reduce anemia risk.