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Type Journal Article - Archives of Public Health
Title Malnutrition: Prevalence and its associated factors in People living with HIV/AIDS, in Dilla University Referral Hospital
Volume 2013
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2013
URL http://bibliobase.sermais.pt:8008/BiblioNET/Upload/PDF6/004757_Archives of Public Health.pdf
Background: Literatures on prevalence and factors associated with malnutrition among peoples living with
HIV/AIDS are limited in Ethiopia and not well documented either. The proper implementation of nutritional support
and its integration with the routine highly active antiretroviral therapy package demands a clear picture of the
magnitude and associated factors of malnutrition. The objective of this study is, therefore, to assess the prevalence
and factors associated with malnutrition among peoples living with HIV/AIDS.
Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted in Dilla University referral Hospital including adult
HIV patients who were in highly active anti retroviral therapy. Interview administered questionnaires were used to
collect data on socio demographic factors. Besides, HIV related clinical information was extracted from anti retro
viral therapy data base and clinical charts. The nutritional status of the patients was determined by Body Mass Index
(BMI) where BMI < 18kg/m2 was defined as malnutrition according to World Health Organization (WHO). Binary
logistic regression was used to assess association between different risk factors and malnutrition. Confidence
interval of 95% was considered to see the precision of the study and the level of significance was taken at a <0.05.
Results: A total of 520 patients were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 12.3%
(95% CI 9.5–15.0). After full control of all variables; unemployment (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 3.6 - 7.76), WHO clinical stage
four (OR = 12.9, 95% CI: 2.49- 15.25), gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 5.3, 95% CI: 2.56 - 10.78) and previous (one)
opportunistic infection (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 2.06 - 5.46), and two & above previous opportunistic infections (OR = 4.5,
95% CI: 3.38 - 10.57) were significantly associated with malnutrition. However, moderately poor economic condition
was found to be protective factor for malnutrition (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.14 - 0.95).
Conclusion: Unemployment, WHO clinical AIDS stage four, one & more number of previous opportunistic
infections and gastrointestinal symptoms were found to be important risk factors for malnutrition among People
Living with HIV/AIDS. From this study it has been learnt that nutritional programs should be an integral part of
HIV/AIDS continuum of care. Furthermore, it needs to improve household income of PLHIV with employment
opportunity and to engage them in income generating activities as well.

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