Kigali has embarked on a rapid urbanisation and modernisation process. A growing number of its inhabitants, mushrooming luxury residential and offi ce buildings, infrastructural development and a clean city are some indicators of that dynamic. However, providing adequate land and affordable housing for the majority of urban residents remains a challenge which continues to impact on both the population’s living conditions and sustainable urban planning. The article critically explores this issue with regard to current urban planning regulations. It reveals the urbanisation challenges facing Kigali and the current strategies for its modernisation, and proposes a viable framework for inclusive urban planning.