Agricultural land is critically important, but limited resource for production of agricultural goods. Therefore, it is essential to exploit agricultural land efficiently to provide the planet’s growing population with food. We evaluated how efficient is utilization of the agricultural land in a northern country called Latvia. Based on statistical data at micro level, we evaluated inefficiently exploited areas that potentially might be available for the production of agricultural products. It is discovered that in 2013 as much as 37% (or 874.4 thousand hectares) of utilized agricultural area were not efficiently exploited in the country. The reasons for ineffective use are described and production potential is evaluated.