This thesis explores the gender earnings gaps in urban Ecuador during the period between 2003 and 2012. The difference between the female average earnings and the male average earnings increases from 7% in 2003 to 12% in 2012. Thus, exploring if this increase is a common pattern of the gender earnings gap across the distribution, the links between the gaps and occupational segregation, the differences in the components of the gap when only occupations with a relevant participation of women are considered and the reasons of the increase of it are the four purposes of this paper. Decomposition techniques of the female/male differential across the distribution are performed. The study finds an increase in the gender earnings gap at the bottom of the distribution in 2012 associated with a higher participation of women as self – employed. Moreover, occupational segregation does not have an important link with the earnings differential. However, the glass ceiling effect is higher for occupations with a relevant participation of women than that of all the occupations. Finally, self-employment may have a major role in explaining the increase in the gender gap in 2012.