This paper provides an overview of rice sector development in Uganda and examines the effects of two technology dissemination programs on the enhancement of rice production in Eastern and Northern Uganda. One program was a JICA training program that provided on-the-job training at demonstration plots 3–4 times a year, while the other was to distribute a rice cultivation guidebook to households that were randomly selected. The training program was shown to have improved rice productivity. In contrast, there were no significant effects resulting from the distribution of the guidebook on technology adoption or rice production. Although the distribution of the guidebook was less costly and easier to implement than the training program, distribution of the guidebook alone cannot be a substitute for conventional training programs.