A priority of AIDS prevention in Botswana is to reduce multiple concurrent sexual partnerships. We analysed data from interviews with people aged 16–60 years in a 2007 national stratified random cluster sample of communities across Botswana. Among 768 male and 1784 female respondents, 10% reported multiple sexual partners in the month prior to the survey (MP1); 19% of men and 6% of women. In a multivariate analysis, men were more likely to report MP1 if they had not completed primary education (adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa) 2.13, 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for clustering (CIca) 1.19–3.85), if they were single (ORa 2.29, 95% CIca 1.28–4.11), if they had experienced intimate partner violence in the last year (ORa 2.59, 95% CIca 1.51–4.45) and if they reported acquiescence to high risk sex (ORa 8.32, 95% CIca 3.38–20.46). Women who said they earned more or the same as their partner were also more likely to report MP1 (ORa 1.76, 95% CIca 1.21–2.56). The higher rate of MP1 among men with different forms of choice-disability shows an important potential multiplication of male risk factors. Women with higher income were more likely to have more partners, questioning the idea that multiple concurrent partners is mainly a question of male disposable income.