This article investigates the extent to which acquired correct knowledge about HIV and AIDS prevention and transmission is translated into protective sexual behaviours among young people in Botswana. This research uses a nationally representative sample of the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS) conducted in 2004. The sample for the current study was limited to all people aged 10-24 who had completed the individual questionnaire of BAIS and have had sexual intercourse at the time of the survey. Both bivariate and multiple regression analyses are used to investigate the topic. The results from both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that a consistent and significant predictor of safe sex behaviours among young people is the knowledge that something can be done to prevent becoming infected with HIV. In the multivariate analysis, knowledge that people cannot get HIV because of witchcraft is significantly associated with the likelihood to report safe sexual behaviours whilst knowledge that a person cannot get infected with HIV through mosquito bites is significantly associated with decreased odds of reporting safe sexual behaviours. The study concludes that although correct knowledge of HIV/ AIDS prevention and transmission methods does not necessarily translate into safe sexual behaviours, some knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission methods among young people is associated with safe sexual behaviours. There are other predictors of safe sexual behaviours other than HIV-related knowledge of prevention measures. Further research that combines both qualitative and quantitative approaches is needed to clarify the exact nature of how knowledge of HIV and AIDS prevention and transmission influences protective sex behaviours. The research should also explore the role played by these unknown factors in predicting safe sex behaviours.