Women play significant roles in the domestic and national socio-economic development of many countries in the sub-Sahara Africa. They own livestock especially sheep and goats since these animals are smaller and easier to handle compared to cattle and camels. The purpose of this study was to examine the roles women play in sheep and goat production across the 41 Sub-Saharan African countries. The study reviewed available secondary data and case studies. Content analysis procedures include identifying appropriate literature, evaluating the data, and synthesizing the information. The study found that women’s roles in rearing sheep and goats were not significantly different from men’s. The review also found that, a role particularly that of women is more of an inheritance and is usually acquired. Women’s knowledge on various sheep and goat rearing activities were also analyzed. The study found that women were knowledgeable in rearing sheep and goats than men.