|Title||ERAWATCH Country Reports 2011: Montenegro|
Political commitment and administrative capacity were strengthened by the creation in
December 2010 of a new Ministry of Science, responsible for policymaking and funding
of research activities. In addition, the government established in February 2011 a new
Council for Scientific and Research Activity comprising 11 members representing the
public and private sectors, research institutes and academics. Montenegro has taken
several further measures to implement the National Strategy for Science and Research
Activities (2008-2016). A new Law governing scientific research activity was adopted in
December 2010. It sets out conditions for State funding for both public and private
institutions in 14 research programmes and priority areas in line with FP7.
In January 2011, a strategy for development of SMEs was adopted, covering the period
2011-2015. It focuses on creating better business conditions and entrepreneurship for
SMEs and includes several measures to stimulate and monitor research activities of
SMEs, which, in turn, will contribute to the Innovation Union.
In March 2011, an Action Plan on Mobility of Scientists was adopted containing
measures aiming at strengthening inward, outward and inter-sectoral mobility over the
period 2011-2012 and, in doing so, preparing for adoption of the European Charter and
Code of Conduct for the recruitment of researchers. By September 2011, two institutions
included in Montenegrin’s education system had signed the Declaration of Commitment
to the Principles of the European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for
the Recruitment of Researchers (University of Montenegro and University Donja Gorica).
EURAXESS, the mobility portal organised by the University of Montenegro, which is the
bridgehead organisation, has been fully operational since November 2010.
One of the most important changes in financing research and innovation happened in
October 2011 when the Ministry of Science in cooperation with the Ministry of
Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Health, Ministry for Information Society
and Telecommunications, Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism, Ministry of
Education and Sport as well as the Ministry of Culture announced a new call for scientific
and research projects covering period 2012-2014 with the total budget of €5m. This will
be the first time ever budget of that magnitude as well as the first time collaborative
national public research funding in Montenegro.
The novelty of the new call is that national research projects will be now available to
Ministry of Science is preparing a national programme for young researchers’ mobility
for the period after 2012. The Ministry is also focused at the improvement of bilateral
scientific cooperation that sets legal framework for free realisation of mobility.
Montenegro will need to address several structural challenges in order to unleash
innovative potential, the most important being: (i) increase scientific output
(publications; citations; patenting etc.); (ii) accelerate commercialisation of research and
deepen collaboration with the business sector (the impact of public R&D expenditure on
economic development depends on the how the scientific results and research capacity
are commercialised in the format of licensing; spinoff companies or contract research to
the business sector); and (iii) promote higher levels of private R&D investments and
facilitate innovative start-up companies (expansion of business R&D).
Multi-annual strategy is spelled out in the Strategy for development of scientific
research activity in Montenegro for the period 2008-2016. The strategy’s action plan
includes a roadmap for increasing investment in science and research, both by the
public and private sector, aiming at reaching an investment level of 1.4% of
Country REPORTS 2011: Montenegro
Montenegro’s GDP in research by 2013.
Strategy for Scientific Research Activities 2008-2016, defines:
? objectives and tasks of scientific - research activities;
? harmonisation of scientific - research activities with laws and strategic
? institutional framework for development of scientific - research work;
? research, innovation and technological development;
? international cooperation;
? financing of scientific - research activities and
? realisation of objectives and monitoring of implementation of the Strategy
The policy mix in place for promoting private investments in R&D has yet to be
developed. The main source of R&D funding is the government. On the whole, the
business sector enjoys limited support from government, as evidenced by non-existent
data on its shares in R&D funding and in performance. The higher education sector is
also largely government-funded. The above structural features indicate a relatively slow
transformation of R&D towards enterprise-based R&D systems. Yet, during the
transition period and until recently, the trend was towards a stronger higher education
sector. With continuing recovery and economic growth, it is expected the business
enterprise sector will have its added importance.
When looking to the relevance of the ERA for Montenegro research policy, one needs to
consider that Montenegro is not a member of the EU and thus, strategic policy document
(see, e.g., Strategy for scientific and research activity of Montenegro 2008-2016) contain
very few references to the ERA or the ERA objectives.
Montenegro has started to be involved in EU research policy, mainly through its
association to the 7th Research Framework Programme. Montenegro’s strategy for
research activities is largely in line with the EU research policy and contributes to the
targets set at EU level in the context of the ERA. However, close monitoring of these
targets and implementation of planned actions will be of key importance. Overall, if it
continues its efforts, Montenegro should, in the medium term, have the capacity to
comply with the requirements of the acquis.
However, it will have to undertake additional efforts in strengthening human capital and
infrastructure capacities for its effective participation in research framework
programmes and integration into the European Research Area.
Future policy can make use of the following suggestions:
? Monitoring implementation on an annual basis of science and technology policy
and an action plan;
? Performing regular evaluation of innovation policy (including the work of
institutions which are responsible for policy implementation)
|»||Montenegro - Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011|