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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research
Title Physical, chemical and microbiological analysis of Ikogosi Warm Spring in Nigeria
Volume 6
Issue 1
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2011
Page numbers 1-9
URL https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Emmanuel_Adeyeye/publication/277017375_PHYSICAL_CHEMICAL_AND_MI​CROBIOLOGICAL_ANALYSIS_OF_IKOGOSI_WARM_SPRING_IN_NIGERIA/links/555f1a3608ae8c0cab2dc203.pdf
Water and soil samples were taken for analyses from Ikogosi Warm Spring and for purposes of comparison analyses were made of
the adjoining cold stream, mixture of warm and cold water and their intersect. All water samples were tasteless and odourless; all
cold and warm had clear appearance; intersect was turbid as well as one of mixture samples; conductivity (µmS/cm) was low (0.5 x
100, cold; 1.5 x 100, warm), temperature was close (25-26, cold to 34-35O
C, warm). Alkalinity, hardness, total solid, PO 4
and SO4
were all far below the WHO guideline values. NO3
range was 24-76 ppm, very much above the limit of 10 mg/litre of the WHO.
Average ranges of the minerals in water were (ppm): Fe 3. 1-6.1, Zn 2.0-2.7, Mn 9.1-11.9, Cu (ND), Mg 7.9-21.0, Na 4.6-6.2, Ca 9.4-
13.1, Pb (ND), K 3.0-9.2, Cr (ND), CI 30.8-56.9, Ni (ND). Fe and Mn might affect the aesthetic value of the water. In soils, mineral
ranges were (ppm): Fe 0.3-0.5, Zn 0.27-0.37, Mn 0.05-0.3, Cu 0.04-0.06, Mg 1.11-1.4, Na 1.19-1.4, Ca 0.87-1.3, Pb 0.22-0.29, K 1.13-
1.5, Cr 0.03-0.08, CI 0.007-0.02, Ni 0.03-0.044; the soils would serve as reservoirs for Pb, Cr and Ni. MPN in 100 ml of water ranged
as follows: 4-250 (cold), 1-40 (warm), 1.0 (intersect), 12-1600 (mixture). Bacteria majorly found in water samples were Escherichia
coli and Aerobacter aerogenes while the fungi in the soils were mostly Aspergillus niger. Water would be unsafe microbiologically for
human consumption.

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