|Type||Thesis or Dissertation - Doctor of Philosophy|
|Title||The power of context in health partnerships: Exploring synergy and antagony between external and internal ideologies in mplementing Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) for HIV prevention in Botswana|
The aim of this thesis is to explore partnership functioning and the power of context in a
North-South partnership in Botswana whose mission is to promote sexual health via Safe
Male Circumcision (SMC) for HIV prevention. Specifically the study explores the power of
cultural relevance as well as elements that bring synergy and antagony in a partnership. The
Botswana SMC partnership comprised Ministry of Health (MH) and two international
organisations, US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and African Comprehensive
HIV/AIDS Partnership (ACHAP), both funded by unseen international donors. The mission
of this partnership was to circumcise 80% of HIV negative men (100,000 per year) over a
five year period.
Partnerships between the global North and the global South are a tool used in global
governance of aid to mobilise resources to particularly assist developing countries where the
poor and vulnerable are concentrated. HIV/AIDS is a global disease, with efforts to fight it
coordinated by international institutions like UNAIDS and World Health Organisation
(WHO). The global organisations and donors are commended for supporting global scientific
efforts in prevention and cure for infectious and chronic diseases and for being a platform
that facilitates funding efforts to the developing countries. The view of HIV/AIDS as a
global disease has been observed to bring some good but has also generated ‘local pain’ as
approaches used to combat it are applied with assumptions of universal effectiveness.
Some partnerships have faced disappointing shortfalls and many fail before fulfilling their
goals. There are few studies that analyse partnership functioning and processes, especially in
Africa. Most of these studies explore what brings about synergy - producing more results
than those of a single entity operation. Thus far, very few studies identified ‘antagony’ in
partnerships and few address partnership context issues in a more generalised way. There
are, to my knowledge, few studies that explore global and local contextual environments that
cause antagony and the underlying causes thereof. This thesis aims to bridge this gap and to
add to the knowledge of partnership functioning.
This study used qualitative ethnographic design to explore the Botswana SMC partnership
over three years. Data were collected in three research sites in Botswana; Gaborone city
where national officers to the program operate; Hukuntsi and Mochudi villages which have
two contrasting cultures to the tradition of initiation. The methods for data collection were
observation, in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussion (FGDs) and informal
discussions. Thirty national and district SMC officers were observed in a three-day meeting.
I also observed two SMC public campaigns where I interacted with a range of stakeholders.
All in all, 39 IDIs and five FGDs were conducted for the whole study. Paper I and III draw
on data from observation of the 30 officers, IDIs and FDGs while paper II adds experiences
of program campaigns to the list.
Results of Paper I reveal that the Botswana SMC partnership experienced a range of
partnership outcomes; additive – Botswana Government had been doing SMC without
partnership, synergistic – more was achieved through the partnership and antagonistic –
resistance that caused counter-productivity. A combination of inputs – planning together,
developing training and implementing materials, giving financial resources, sharing skills,
donating capital and medical equipment – helped push their target of circumcising 100,000
HIV negative men in a given year. However, the same resources brought tensions in the
partnership, especially where there was no transparency and where international
organisations used different reporting tools. Although there are tensions between partners,
they are working together in strategising to address some challenges of the partnership and
implementation. Pressure to meet the target caused tension and challenges between the incountry
partners to the extent of international organisations retreating and not pursuing the
Paper II shows that program officers’ consultation with traditional leaders was done in a
seemingly superficial, non-participatory manner. While SMC implementers reported
pressure to deliver numbers to the WHO, traditional leaders promoted circumcision through
their routine traditional initiation ceremonies at breaks of two-year intervals. There are
conflicting views on public SMC demand creation campaigns in relation to the traditional
secrecy of circumcision within initiation.
Paper III reveals that the partnership experienced antagonistic results during operational
processes and as the ultimate outcome. Target setting, financial power of the North,
superficial ownership given to the South, and ignoring local traditional realities result in
antagony. There are three underlying causes of antagony identified: 1. therapeutic
domination – medical expertise given with arrogance; 2. iatrogenic violence – good
intentions that cause unintended harm; 3. the Trojan horse – deceptive power positioned
under the pretext of benevolence.
To tie the three papers together, I identify three main findings that were given less attention.
First, all three in-country partners had attitudes that were counterproductive to the success of
the partnership. Second, there was resistance at different levels by the recipient government
and communities. Third, it was the international donors rather than the in-country partners
who put pressure in partnership.
Results of Paper I reveal that external influences that come from the unseen international
donors influenced the working of the in-country partnership, unfortunately crippling it from
resolving implementation challenges as experienced within the context of partnership
functioning. Global mechanisms used for accountability are sabotaged by the same global
context where the exercise of power and financial leverage by international donors reign. A
combination of inputs by partners brought some progress towards achieving set program
goals. However, prioritising externally formulated programs and lack of appreciation for
local symbolic funding undermined local efforts and gave blurriness in leadership and
ownership of the program. Externally formulated goals and targets, as well as subsequent
expectations from external donors placed the functioning and contextual interaction of the
partnership at risk. Tensions around target, ownership, financial contribution and accounting
caused antagony, resulting in international partners withdrawing before accomplishing the
Results for Papers II and III reveal that antagony can be experienced at two levels: during the
collaborative process and as the ultimate outcome of the partnership. The two papers also
show that the local and global context has not been harmonised in a way that inspires
collaboration rather it create tensions. Ignoring to address contextual issues like the ideology
of neoliberalism and traditional practices of collectivism caused continuous conflict and
resistance. Lack of genuine community consultation and SMC program implementers’
unwillingness to address traditional leaders’ views of locally appropriate approaches to
program implementation caused tensions and resistance.
Paper III specifically showed that inputs such as finance and oversupply of medical
equipment can be a source of antagony. It is also observed that attitudes of the international
donors bring antagony: Therapeutic domination – was shown in prioritising external
approaches such as the MOVE project which was more concerned about numbers than other
implementation realities, side-lining the local government’s approach of integration. The
international partners’ lack of acknowledgment for Ministry of Health’s (MH’s) nonfinancial
contribution indicated their belief in the superiority of their modes of involvement;
Iatrogenic violence – was evident when MH was left with the sole financial and operational
responsibility for all aspects of the program once the DPs pulled out; The Trojan horse – is
illustrated by the international donors’ approach that brought false hope of victory but was a
vehicle for donor control.
Consistent throughout the three papers is that more can be achieved through partnerships
than single actors acting alone or parallel, but attention needs to be given to partners’
inherent attitudes as well as global and local contexts of partnerships to minimise antagony.
Also, consultation at all levels would better be done in a genuine, participatory manner.
Community’s initial cooperation was a loud message for openness and flexibility while the
ultimate resistance was a cry to be heard. The main conclusion of this study is that NorthSouth
partnerships should not only be between organisations but also between organisations
and people in order to account for the context of local realities.
|»||Botswana - Population and Housing Census 2011|