Ethiopia has several ongoing capacity building and reform programs that are directed towards realizing stability and resilience against fragility. This chapter assesses the effectiveness of Ethiopia capacity building programs by using a conceptual framework that embraces the input, process, intermediate and ultimate outcome model. Relevant documents on capacity building activities in Ethiopia were reviewed to obtain the necessary data for the assessment. From the findings, the chapter concludes that the large gains made in the last 10 years in politics, governance, administrative reforms, education, health and other social services are indicative of effectiveness of the capacity building initiative. It, however, notes that the country still remains politically, economically and socially fragile, the primary reasons being the challenges to and degradations in authority and capacity.