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Citation Information

Type Thesis or Dissertation - Master of Public Health
Title Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Screening and Detection within the ANC Services in Thika Level Five Hospital
Author(s)
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2013
URL http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/58696/Full text.pdf?sequence=3
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally and the number
of TB cases continues to rise. Passive TB screening reduces delays detection of the disease.
A delay in TB detection continues to be a major impediment to TB management among the
general population. Factors associated with tuberculosis diagnosis may worsen the disease
and increase risk of death as well as enhance tuberculosis transmission in the community
TB during pregnancy has adverse consequences for the mother and the unborn baby as well
as the immediate family members. Late TB detection during pregnancy worsens the outcome
of pregnancy for the mother and the baby as well as her immediate family members.
However, evidence suggests that there is inadequate screening of TB among pregnant
women. This study was carried out to generate evidence on factors contributing to TB
screening during pregnancy.
The study was carried out in Thika Level Five Hospital. A descriptive cross-sectional study
design was employed. The study population included 7 members of the hospital management
team, 477 clients attending ANC services and 12 ANC service providers. Interviews were
conducted with the above study participants to elicit data related to the factors associated with
TB screening among pregnant women. Records were reviewed to obtain data on TB
screening during ANC services. Finally, the facility was assessed using a checklist to
determine the availability of appropriate organizational structure, policies and guidelines,
infrastructure, human resources, supplies and commodities that support TB screening and
detection.
Data obtained were analyzed according to various sub-themes of factors associated with TB
screening during pregnancy. Both providers’ and patients’ knowledge and practice are factors
associated with TB screening among pregnant women. Five (5) of the 12 service providers
knew that the screening for TB during pregnancy should be conducted for all mothers during
all the ANC visits. This finding seems to correlate with the service providers’ practice in TB
screening for ANC clients which showed that only 27% of ANC clients interviewed are
screened for TB. Further findings from the service statistics record review indicate that only
33% (n= 5080) of the clients were screened of TB. All the clients were screened during the
first ANC visit despite the Ministry of Health’s policy of screening all pregnant women
during all the ANC visits (Division of Lung Tuberculosis and leprosy Disease (DLTLD),
2009). The referral practices for TB detection among pregnant women are adequate. Facility
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preparedness in terms of supplies and commodities for TB detection were adequate and
therefore could not be associated with delays in screening for TB among pregnant women.
Policy makers, health managers, service providers and community members should make
efforts towards improving TB screening and detection among pregnant women in order to
achieve MDG 4, 5 and 6 among other health goals

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