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Citation Information

Type Thesis or Dissertation - Master of Science
Title Micronutrients Deficiencies (Zinc, Retinol And Alpha-Tocopherol), Morbidity Patterns And Dietary Practices Among The Hiv Positive And Negative Subjects In Busia County, Kenya
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2016
URL http://ir.jkuat.ac.ke:8080/bitstream/handle/123456789/2020/KHAMADI, Vivian Mmbone-Msc Public​health-2016.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Use of micronutrients has been recognized as a low-cost sustainable intervention in the
management of HIV/AIDS worldwide, yet there is little information on the micronutrient levels
among the population in Kenya that can aid in making informed decisions. The main objective of
this study was to determine the levels of zinc, retinol and ά-tocopherol among the HIV positive and
HIV negative subjects in Busia County, Western Kenya, in a case control study. Blood samples
were obtained from a total of 155 consenting study subjects for determination of haematological
and biochemical characteristics. A physical medical examination was done to determine the
prevalence of morbidity among the respondents and a structured questionnaire used to determine
the dietary practices and the behavior risk factors in the stated study population. Data collected was
coded and entered into a database using MS-Access and a clean dataset exported into a Statistical
Package format (SPSS) where univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done. In the
results, the levels of Zinc, Retinol and α-tocopherol were similar in both the HIV positive and
negative subjects with more than 60% of the population manifesting deficiency in the three
micronutrients. However, the study subjects deficient in CD4+ cell count were 24.4% and 3.9% in
HIV positive and negative subjects, respectively (P<0.001). In terms of morbidity, the disease
burden among the two groups was similar. Of the twenty-three signs and symptoms associated with
HIV/AIDS that were evaluated, a significant difference was noted in lymphadenopathy (12.8%
HIV positive, 3.1% HIV negative, P = 0.005), Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (34.6% HIV
positive,19.5% HIV negative, P = 0.034) and Skin rash (25.6% HIV positive, 7.8% HIV negative,
P = 0.003). The dietary practices and food intake patterns were similar among the two groups of
respondents where comparison of consumption of the different food groups between the HIV
positive and negative participants revealed no significant difference among the two groups. In
conclusion, this study implies that even though there were slight differences in the levels of
micronutrients (Zinc, Retinol and ά- Tocopherol), the morbidity patterns and the dietary practices
among the HIV positive the HIV negative persons, the differences were not significant.

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