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Citation Information

Type Thesis or Dissertation - PhD thesis
Title The diagnosis of ADHD in Israel and in Palestine: Stereotype, Prejudice and the Influence of the school system polices
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2016
URL https://boa.unimib.it/retrieve/handle/10281/101995/149936/phd_unimib_761015.pdf
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, aka ADHD is an expression minted and coined to
define a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by a deficient or lacking in the levels
of inattention, disorganization, and /or hyperactivity-impulsivity. It has the distinction of being
both the most extensively studied mental disorder among children, and the most controversial.
“Hyperactivity-impulsivity entails over activity, fidgeting, inability to stay seated or still,
intruding into other people's activities, and inability to wait—symptoms that are excessive for age
or developmental level. In childhood, ADHD frequently overlaps with disorders that are often
considered to be "externalizing disorders," such as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct
disorder. ADHD often persists into adulthood, with resultant impairments of social, academic,
and occupational functioning” (DSM-5, 2013)
The exact cause of this order is yet to be determined; however, numerous factors are believed to have
an effect on this disorder. These factors include familiar, biological, social, and nutritional factors.
Nevertheless, we believe that it all starts with the diagnosis process, if the disorder are well diagnosed
on time, then an early intervention may be more effective. Therefore, in the present study we had
decided to examine the diagnosis process of ADHD. The participants of the research were divided
into two groups: Palestinians in the West Bank and Israeli Arabs. The current search has been carried
out in two parts. The first part was the preliminary study or the qualitative part, its main objective was
to extract salient themes in the diagnosis process of ADHD via thematic content analysis using a
grounded theory methodology (Anderson, 2004). Participants were involved in a number of focus
groups (N= 6) and key-informants (N= 20) and have been interviewed. Results showed that the three
groups had shared common themes; firstly, the factors of ADHD that included social factors, familial
factors, biological factors, and nutritional factors. Secondly, the diagnosis of ADHD that included the
diagnosis reliability of ADHD. Thirdly the treatment of ADHD that contained medical treatment,
behavioral treatment, the school’s role, and the parents’ role. Finally the commonality of ADHD.
Whence, the second part of the study or the quantitative part came, thus, the main objective was to
identify the dimensions of the diagnosis of ADHD in both Israel and Palestine; stereotype, prejudice
and the influence of the school system polices. Using a cross-sectional design (N=324 participants),
results showed that familial factors have a more significant effect on ADHD in the West Bank than in
Israel. Second, nutritional factors have a more significant effect on ADHD in Israel than in the West
Bank. Third, the current diagnosis ways for ADHD are fully reliable, both in Israel and in the West
Bank. Fourth, medical treatment for ADHD is more common in Israel than in the West Bank. Fifth,
schools have a more significant role in dealing with ADHD in Israel than in the West Bank. Sixth,
parents have a more significant role on ADHD in Israel than in the West Bank. Finally, ADHD is
more common nowadays than it was in the past both in Israel and in the West Bank.

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