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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - Parasites & Vectors
Title Impact of vegetable crop agriculture on anopheline agressivity and malaria transmission in urban and less urbanized settings of the south region of Cameroon
Author(s)
Volume 8
Issue 1
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2015
Page numbers 293
URL https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-015-0906-2
Abstract
Background
The use of inland valley swamps for vegetable crop agriculture contributes to food security in urban and less urbanized settings in Africa. The impact of this agriculture on aggressive mosquitoes’ diversity and malaria transmission in central Africa is poorly documented. This study is aimed at assessing the impact of vegetable crop agriculture on these entomological parameters in urban and less urbanized settings of the forest area, south of Cameroon.

Methods
The human bait technique was used for the capture of aggressive mosquitoes from January to December 2012. For three consecutive days each month, captures were performed on volunteers in hydro-agricultural and river bank sites of Akonolinga and Yaoundé. Physico-chemical characteristics of mosquito breeding sites were recorded. Molecular alongside morpho-taxonomic techniques were used for the identification of mosquito species; ELISA test was used to reveal Plasmodium falciparum infected mosquitoes through the detection of CSP. Mosquito diversity, aggressivity and malaria transmission in sites and settings were determined and compared.

Results
Biting rates were higher in hydro-agricultural sites of less urbanized and urban settings (31.8 b/p/n and 28.6 b/p/n respectively) than in river banks sites (6.83 b/p/n and 3.64 b/p/n respectively; p < 0.0001). Physico-chemical parameters of breeding sites were not fundamentally different. Five anopheline species were identified; An. gambiae, An. funestus s.s., An. moucheti s.s., An. hancocki and An. nili s.s. In hydro-agricultural sites 2 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 in the less urbanized setting, meanwhile in river bank sites, 3 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 species in the less urbanized setting. An. nili s.s. was found in river banks only. An. hancocki was not found to insure Plasmodium falciparum Welch transmission. EIR in hydro-agricultural sites varied from 1.86 ib/p/n (urban area) to 2.13 ib/p/n (less urbanized area) with higher rates in April/May and August. Overall, EIR was higher in less urbanized areas (p < 0.0001) but the difference was nullified with the practice of vegetable crop agriculture (p = 0.2).

Conclusion
These results highlight the need for specific preventive measures that take into account the ecological peculiarities related to vegetable crop agriculture on hydro-agricultural lands, in order to protect inhabitants from malaria.

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