Commonly used paradigms for studying child psychopathology emphasize individual-level factors and often neglect the role of context in shaping risk and protective factors among children, families, and communities. To address this gap, we evaluated influences of ecocultural contextual factors on definitions, development of, and responses to child behavior problems and examined how contextual knowledge can inform culturally responsive interventions. We drew on Super and Harkness’ “developmental niche” framework to evaluate the influences of physical and social settings, childcare customs and practices, and parental ethnotheories on the definitions, development of, and responses to child behavior problems in a community in rural Nepal. Data were collected between February and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with a purposive sampling strategy targeting parents (N=10), teachers (N=6), and community leaders (N=8) familiar with child-rearing. Results were supplemented by focus group discussions with children (N=9) and teachers (N=8), pile-sort interviews with mothers (N=8) of school-aged children, and direct observations in homes, schools, and community spaces.