Building and residential energy demand consists of more than 45% in India’s final energy consumption. With increasing population growth, income, and urbanization, it can be reasonably expected that meeting the energy service demands for the building sector will be a huge challenge for energy policy in the country. The present study uses a technologically detailed, service based building energy model nested in the long term in the long term, global, integrated assessment framework, GCAM. After presenting an aggregate picture of long term energy demand in the Indian building sector, it analyses the urban and rural household energy demand in the business as usual scenario. The analysis reveals that by end of century, energy for cooking, appliances, and cooling will take a high share of final energy for India around at 35%, 30% and 25% respectively. Space heating and cooling demand will grow at the fastest rate though because of the low base space heating share will be just above 1% in 2095. Electricity and LPG would be the dominant fuels with the combined share of about 90% by 2095, though there will be some penetration of delivered gas and commercial biomass as well. The evolution of future energy system and end use energy technologies would be significantly different for rural and urban India with different growth rate and penetration of various building energy services and fuels. Climate policy can be expected to have only small effect in reducing final energy consumption in the Indian building sector. Finally the study discusses some policy implications for India from the present analysis.