Ajwad assesses the effectiveness of core social protection programs in Uttar Pradesh using the following criteria: i) coverage, ii) targeting efficiency; and iii) adequacy and potential impact on household welfare. The study is largely a quantitative assessment. Five main findings emerge from the study. First, many of the social safety net programs implemented in Uttar Pradesh have very low coverage rates, which in turn imply that exclusion errors are very large. Second, although the beneficiaries are disproportionately from poor households, non-poor households are benefiting from the program - hence, inclusion errors are also a problem. Third, across caste groupings, program beneficiaries from SC/ST households exceed beneficiaries from other caste groups. Fourth, there is considerable geographic variation in program coverage, implying heterogeneity in the effectiveness of service delivery. Fifth, many of the programs have a very small impact on household welfare, even for poor households.