The aim of our paper is to investigate links between fertility and child mortality in Turkey during the second half of the 20th century. Demographic trends of this country show a decrease of the TFR and of the infant mortality rate during this period. The context of this decrease is the progressive diffusion of contraceptives and the spread of childcare practices which improve the health of children. Our general hypothesis is that Turkey is currently in a demographic transition from a fertility regime in which prevailed the quantity of children to a fertility regime based on the quality of children. According to this hypothesis, we wish to analyse correlations between fertility and child mortality at the level of individuals. We expect a positive correlation, i.e., that the lower (respectively the higher) is the parity of a woman and the lower (the higher) is the probability that some of her children die. We suppose also that the adoption of the new behaviours of reducing fertility and “modern” childcare practices depend on several factors related to the status of women, like the level of education or type of marriage (arranged or not). Data used are the Turkish Demographic and Health data of 1998. In this survey were collected information on births and child mortality of women aged 15 to 49 years old. These data are analyzed with techniques of Event History Analysis.