UNICEF assists countries in collecting and analyzing data in order to fill data gaps for monitoring the situation of children and women through its international household survey initiative the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS).
MICS surveys are typically carried out by government organizations, with the support and assistance of UNICEF and other partners. Technical assistance and training for the surveys is provided through a series of regional workshops where experts from developing countries are trained on various aspects of MICS (questionnaire content, sampling and survey implementation, data processing, data quality and data analysis, and report writing and dissemination).
Since the mid-1990s, the MICS has enabled many countries to produce statistically sound and internationally comparable estimates of a range of indicators in the areas of health, education, child protection and HIV/AIDS. MICS findings have been used extensively as a basis for policy decisions and programme interventions, and for the purpose of influencing public opinion on the situation of children and women around the world.
MICS1 (1995) - The MICS was originally developed in response to the World Summit for Children to measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of mid-decade goals. The first round of MICS was conducted around 1995 in more than 60 countries.
MICS2 (2000) - A second round of surveys was conducted in 2000 (around 65 surveys), and resulted in an increasing wealth of data to monitor the situation of children and women. For the first time it was possible to monitor trends in many indicators and set baselines for other indicators.
MICS3 (2005-2006) - The third round of MICS, which was carried out in over 50 countries in 2005-06, has been an important data source for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals with 21 MDG indicators collected through MICS3 (particularly indicators related to health, education and mortality). MICS3 was also a monitoring tool for other international goals including the World Fit for Children, the UNGASS targets on HIV/AIDS and the Abuja targets for malaria.
MICS4 (2009-2011) - In response to an increased demand for data all over the world, starting from MICS4, UNICEF will be prepared to provide assistance to countries at more frequent intervals - every three years instead of every five years. This will provide the opportunity for countries to capture rapid changes in key indicators, particularly the MDGs.
The 2008 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey had its primary objectives as:
- To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women;
- To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward the goals established in the Millennium Declaration, the goals of the "World Fit For Children" (WFFC) and other internationally agreed upon goals, as a basis for future action;
- To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Kenya and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation and analysis of such systems.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Children under 5 years
The scope of Kenya 2008 MICS includes:
- Household Listing
- Water and Sanitation
- Malaria-related questions
- Child Labour
- Child Discipline
- Salt Iodization
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR WOMEN
- Child Mortality
- Tetanus Toxoid
- Maternal and Newborn Health
- Marriage and Union
- Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence
- Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
- HIV knowledge/AIDS
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER 5
- Birth Registration and Early Learning
- Child Development
- Vitamin A
- Care of Illness
Only in selected sub-national areas
- Meru Central
- Meru North
- Meru South
Producers and sponsors
National Bureau of Statistics
United Nations Children's Fund
See the detailed sampling procedure in Appendix A of the report for each region (available as external resouces).
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The June 2008 training for the fieldwork was conducted in two parts, three days training for the mapping and listing teams, and 12 days training for the main survey teams. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. The trainees also spent a whole day interviewing households in the neighbourhood of the training venue. This was organised in order for the trainees to familiarize themselves with the contents of the questionnaires and to gain some field experience.
The household listing was carried out by 3 teams; each comprising of a lister and mapper. These teams were supervised by the District Statistics Officer (DSO) and the whole listing operation was monitored by a district co-ordinator from the KNBS headquarters. On the other hand, data were collected by 2 teams; each comprising of 3 interviewers, one driver, one editor/measurer and a supervisor. In addition to the administration of questionnaires, fieldwork teams tested the salt used for cooking in the households for iodine content, and took measurement (weights and heights) of children age 0-59 months. Fieldwork was concluded in August 2008. Details and findings of these measurements are provided in the respective sections of the report.
Three sets of questionnaires were used in the survey: (1) a household questionnaire which was used to collect information on all de jure household members, the household, and the dwelling; (2) a womanfs questionnaire administered in each household to all women aged 15-49 years; and (3) an under-five questionnaire, administered to mothers or caretakers of all children under five living in the household. The questionnaires included:
The Household Questionnaire included the following modules:
o Household Listing
o Water and Sanitation
o Malaria-related questions
o Child Labour
o Child Discipline
o Salt Iodization
The Questionnaire for individual women was administered to all women aged 15-49 years living in the households, and included the following modules:
o Child Mortality
o Tetanus Toxoid
o Maternal and Newborn Health
o Marriage and Union
o Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence
o Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
o HIV knowledge/AIDS
The Questionnaire for children under five was administered to mothers of children under five years living in the households, or in their absence, to caretakers of such children. The questionnaire included the following modules:
o Birth Registration and Early Learning
o Child Development
o Vitamin A
o Care of Illness
The questionnaires are based on the MICS 3 model questionnaire. From the MICS 3 model English version, the questionnaires were translated into Kiswahili, Borana, Kamba, Meru, and Embu languages.
In addition to the administration of questionnaires, fieldwork teams tested the salt used for cooking in the households for iodine content, and measured the weights and heights of children aged 0-59 months. Details and findings of these measurements are provided in the respective sections of the report.
Data were entered using the Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro) software. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed, and the whole process was monitored by two supervisors. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS 3 project and adapted to the modified questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection.
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Survey datasets are distributed at no cost for legitimate research.
Interested users are requested to provide an e-mail address, their name, affiliation and type of institution and country of residence. A short description of the objectives of the research project must also be provided
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No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to UNICEF.
Email: email@example.com <mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org>
Global MICS Coordinator
Statistics and Monitoring
Division of Policy and Practice
Three United Nations Plaza
New York, NY 10017
Requests for access to the datasets should be made through the website: www.childinfo.org.
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- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
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Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.