The first census in the 20th century was conducted in 1918. Further censuses being conducted in 1935, 1944, 1956, 1963, 1969, 1979,1989 and 2000.
In 1918, the population of the Empire of Bogd was estimated at 647.5 thousand persons. In its day the 1956 census was considered as technically advanced conducted by an established and dedicated census organization. New advances were introduced for the census of 1963, particularly the first use of a computer, which was expected to speed processing and generally improve census methodology. The basic design of the census was developed by the Commission for Mutual Economic Assistance to assure conformity with other censuses in the region. 1017.1 thousand persons were enumerated in the 1963 census. The censuses of 1969, 1979 and 1989 also followed the methodological guidelines developed by the Commission. Moreover, in accordance with UN recommendations these three censuses were conducted once in 10 years and included questions on housing. From 1979 the population and housing censuses were conducted jointly with population surveys using broad-based questionnaires. For instance, the survey of industrial and agricultural workers, 'Workers' and 'Herdsmen', were conducted together with the 1979 census. The survey of unemployed population, and the survey among women on reproductive issues were conducted in 1989. The 2000 census differed from earlier censuses in many ways. As the first to be conducted during the transitional period to a market economy, it was expected to reflect a changing emphasis in the demand for economic and social data. The 2000 census was based largely on United Nations principles and recommendations for conducting censuses and thus, in meeting global standards, could be thought of as the first truly modern census to be conductedin the country.
On 5 January 2000, there were 2,373,493 persons enumerated as residents of Mongolia. Of this figure 1,177,981 were males and 1,195,512 were females. At the 1989 census, the resident population was 2,043,954 persons. Thus, during the eleven years between the censuses the population grew by 16.1 percent, which is equivalent to an average annual rate of about 1.4 percent. This rate is low compared with the recent past. From 1956 the growth rate increased sharply, remaining above an annual equivalent of 2.5 percent up to the 1989 census. Thus the current inter-censal growth rate is the lowest since 1944.
The objective of the Population and housing census 2000 is to provide comprehensive and basic statistical data required to study changes in economic, social and demographic status of Mongolia for the last 11 years and its reasons and determinants, to plan economic and social development of the first years of next century and formulate state policies to implement such planned measures and make researches and analysis. As well as, it would be collected compiled new data required to assess a process of first stage of implementation and elaborate for the “Population Development Policy of Mongolia”, which approved by the parliament.
The advantage of census conducting is to be provided comprehensive information for summarizing and evaluating states of population growth, migration, settlement, education, employment, housing condition and behavior of the population groups processed and disaggregated by all administrative units compared with other population data sources. Moreover, census is significant to provide accurate data to international partners at the present time, which Mongolian foreign relations have expanding and collaboration with international organization has becoming more close.
The census would be crucial for revision of accuracy and reality of annual population statistics.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
- Member of households
-v2.0:Edited data for internal use only.
In the early discussions on the scope of the population census it was agreed that the following topics would be included:
Social and demographic characteristics
Relation to household head
Date of birth
Geographical and migration characteristics
Duration of residence
Place of birth
Place of residence five years ago
All aimags, soums, districts, bags, horoos and capital city.
The census shall be covered the persons as followed:
- Citizens of Mongolia who are in the country at the time of census;
- Foreigners and persons without citizenship who are living in Mongolia for more than 183 days and foreigners persons without citizenship who are taking permission to stay for over 6 months from the authorized organizations;
- Citizens of Mongolia and their families who worked at the diplomatic representative offices, consulates and in the international organizations in foreign countries at the time of census;
- Citizens of Mongolia who are temporarily absent from Mongolia due to work, study and stay in overseas by personal reasons during the census period;
The following types of living quarters shall be covered in the housing census:
- Students dormitory
- Public dormitory
- Other public apartment
- Non-living quarters
- All types of gers
Another important concept for the measurement of coverage related to the timing of the census. While the enumeration covered the seven-day period from 5-11 January 2000, it is important for the interpretation of the data that the census results relate to a more precise point in time. The night of 4th January 2000 was designated as census night. Generally, this concept of a fixed census night did not cause problems for respondents or enumerators. However, in the few cases where location on census night did introduce difficulty, where, for example, the respondent traveled during census night, the more precise time reference of midnight on census night was introduced.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistical Office of Mongolia
United Nations Statistical Division
Government of Mongolia
United Nations Population Fund
Australian Bureau of Statistics
United Nations Statistical Commission
Deviations from the Sample Design
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The obligations and duties of supervisors
The supervisors would be work with main duties as to control for enumerators execution, provide accuracy of responses, receive and check all completed questionnaires, produce preliminary results on fixed time and carry out post-enumeration in order to conduct census with high quality and full coverage.
a.The obligations and duties of supervisors
1.To obtain knowledge and skills able to find and correct any fault of enumerators through active participation in the census trainings and well learning of questionnaire and its filling instruction,
2.To follow-up guides, recommendations and instructions of census commissions and temporary bureaus in soums and bags/khoroos of aimag center soums,
3.To revise whether enumerators cover all population according to census maps, which have approved by census bureaus or not and whether they able to take accurate responses for the questions in questionnaire,
4.To investigate with heads and members of census commission, temporary bureau own responsible boundary compared with approved census map, if there is any difference, to make adjunct/identification, inform to census commissions of soum, district, bag and khoroo, to make resolution and to exactly arrange boundary with nearby census part,
5.To visit particular households in own responsible part (does not matter they live apartment, non-living quarter, ger or other places) accordance with census map, revise a number of households in the particular housing, names of resident people, visitors, who are staying less than the six months and temporary absent ones and identify whether any one is missing or not,
6.To check enumerators whether did lists of people, who are perhaps absent at home during the census days or not, give advice precede how and when cover them in the census and in the particular cases, to make complex measurements from the commissions of bags and khoroos,
7.To make a special consideration to cover people who live in house top/roof, porch, duct of heating system, forests and cliffs and power the control,
8.To introduce with enumerators' cases to make overall revision on population mobility in urban areas, observe and note perhaps births, deaths and migration at the census period and to work closely with census commissions of bags and khoroos in this matter,
9.To actively involve in advocacy to publicize purpose, principles, rules and significance of the census to the public,
10.To produce detailed schedule to work with enumerators during the stages of preparation, census conducting and receiving census materials, approved by census commission and introduce it to the enumerators and follow it strictly,
11.To deliver census maps for every enumerators and introduce for them,
12.To personify introduce with process of enumerators' work for the first two days of census, give an advice, check each completed questionnaires, if there is any mistake, make correction and provide instruction to fill without any mistake, urban supervisors should be check completed questionnaires in the particular day and rural supervisors must be check all completed questionnaires in the next day. To ask head of census commission to change particular enumerator, who is making mistakes repeatedly even the giving instruction on regular basis,
13.To check attendance of all enumerators, if anyone didn't come, shall be clarify his/her causes and inform to the head of census commission, and make appropriate decision immediately,
14.Each enumerator should be counted 15 percent of total households and person to be counted during the census days, for instance, rural enumerator should be counted 4-5 households or 23-27 people and urban enumerator must be counted 10-12 households or 45-53 people. This limit is essential to monitor census process. Although, on Saturday and Sunday of 8-9 January 2000 enumerators should try to count as more as possible. Supervisor should be monitor for it.
15.Supervisors shall be informed to the temporary bureau of soum, bag and khoroo how many people have counted in their responsible areas, ask to census commission of soum, bag and khoroo issues on additional enumerators, if needed.
16.When supervisors check completed questionnaires, shall be use them neat and tidy accordance with census instruction because of all questionnaires will become main document for compiling results of state population and housing census,
17.To participate controlling enumeration carry out from the census commission of soum, bag, khoroo in person,
18.To express own views to the census commission about improvement of daily arrangements of the census, faced problems and its solutions,
19.To control for enumerators to use and keep questionnaires neat and tidy and without faulty,
20.To compile preliminary results of census by forms UD-1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and submit to temporary bureau of soum, district, bag and khoroo on fixed time,
21.To hand over exactly counted questionnaires and other forms to the enumerators, return them separately by filled up and blank questionnaires and other forms, and reckon up with temporary bureau,
22.All supervisors should keep responses confidential in accordance with Mongolian Law on "Confidentiality of private information"(paragraph 4, article 5) and Mongolian Law on Statistics (article 3, chapter 22), revised in 1997,
b.Forbidden things for the supervisors
1.To give away responses confidential to the other individuals except of staffs for census commission and temporary bureau of soum, bag and khoroo,
2.To waste and destroy filled up questionnaires,
3.To fold, crush and tear up filled up questionnaires,
4.To correct and check filled up questionnaires by other pens and pencils coloured as red, black and green etc, except blue and dark blue,
Data Collection Notes
The census enumeration shall be commenced at 8 a.m. on 5 January 2000, and it completed on 11 January. The post enumeration census shall be conducted from 12 January 2000 over three days. The midnight of 4 January 2000 is the census moment, and babies born after the census moment as well persons died before the census moment would not enumerated in the census.
The enumeration shall be reached to living quarters (usual place of residence) and counted people and their housing with its condition in order to interview accordance with census questionnaire.
The enumerators shall be counted usual place of residence as houses, apartments, gers and public dormitory of all households and persons, who are covering the census in order to record their housing with its condition.
National Statistical Office of Mongolia
The design of the population and housing questionnaire is fundamental to the census. A housing census was also conducted in which questions were posed that covered conventional and traditional housing (gers) and household characteristics. While most of the questions asked about conventional housing followed international recommendations, the questions about gers clearly reflected the uniqueness of the Mongolian culture.
Population and housing census 2000 questionnaire included:
1 Social and demographic characteristics
- Relation to household head
- Date of birth
- Marital status
2 Geographical and migration characteristics
- Residential status
- Duration of residence
- Place of birth
- Place of residence five years ago
3 Educational characteristics
- Educational level
- School attendance
4 Economic characteristics
- Activity status
- Employment status
Questionnaire and Population and Housing Census 2000_ Enumerator_Manual are provided as external resources.
During the early planning stages it was clear that the existing hardware and peripherals in NSO were not sufficient to enable it to process a modern census. However, with the financial assistance of UNFPA, under the MON/97/P10 project, “Strengthening the Capacity of the National Statistical Office in Data Processing, Analysis and Dissemination”, and the MON/97/P04 project, “Strengthening the Population and Reproductive Health Database for Mongolia”, NSO was provided with new equipment, components and software. It was thus able to establish the basis for strengthening the technical capacity required for the 2000 census. The NSO purchased a range of equipment including 38 Compaq computers, two ACER server computers and other equipment.
On the software side, the NSO decided to process the census using IMPS (Integrated Microcomputer Processing System). Apart from the use of IMPS, the NSO developed other census applications, for example, using the CLIPPER and VISUAL BASIC languages. A special application to speed coding named SEARCH was also developed. Data entry was designed for LAN using a Windows NT Server V4.0 as the control center. The system facilitated data processing, restricting archiving and control functions to the server. Daily progress reports were also provided as part of the Data Control System.
Editing was completed in two stages. In the first stage records were edited manually and in the second they were automatically edited using the editing module of the IMPS package, Concor. The BPCS staff monitored editing work. All editing was completed by 15 October 2000.
Immediately following the census, all records were checked for completeness at the aimag and district levels before being dispatched to the NSO for further processing. On arrival at the NSO, the batches were again checked and receipt was recorded. An important task was in data preparation involved the coding of census responses. From early March, the coding and data entry operations commenced. While most of the coding was done manually the system was designed to undertake limited computer assisted coding for the more complex questions. This automatic coding saved valuable time and resulted in more uniform and high quality coding.The data entry for the PHC 2000 is done by DPTD at the NSO head office in Ulaanbaatar. Data entry operations began on 24 April 2000. A number of controls were set up to ensure the operation went smoothly. A computer program was developed to record progress in data entry and in the performance of individual operators. To further monitor the efficiency and accuracy of data entry, all census materials of all districts of Ulaanbaatar and all aimag center soums were double-entered.
During actual operations 49 persons were working as data entry operators, nine persons were working as re-entry operators and eight persons were working as supervisors. Until July 2000 all staff operated in two shifts, each working for six days per week. By the end of July 2000 all data entry other than the special batches provided by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Defence and Justice had been completed. The coverage rules for these Ministries were complex and special edit rules needed to be developed.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Director of DPTD, NSO
Data is not available for public use.
The data and/or metadata may not be transferred to any other user without prior authorization from NSO of Mongolia
The use of this dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online)
National Statistical Office of Mongolia. Mongolia Population and Housing Census (PHC) 2000 Ref. MNG_2000_PHC_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
National Statistical Office of Mongolia
Disclaimer and copyrights
The NSO of Mongolia provide you with the data as is, without any warranty or responsibility implied and accepts no responsibility for the results and/or implications of any analysis and/or other actions conducted with this data.
National Statistical Office of Mongolia, 2008
DDI Document ID
Documentation of the study
Documentation of the study
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01 (February 2008)
Version 02 (May 2014). Edited version based on Version 01 DDI (MNG-NSO-EN-PHC-2000-v1.0) that was done by Tsolmon Tserendejid and Nansalmaa Zundiu(NSO).