Survey ID Number
Census of Population and Housing 2010
Census of Population and Housing (CPH) refers to the entire process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing, publishing, and disseminating data about the population and the living quarters in a country. It entails the listing and recording of the characteristics of each individual and each living quarter as of a specified time and within a specified territory. In other words, the CPH offers a “snapshot” of the entire population on a specific date, that is, how many people reside within the national borders, who they are, and where they live during such specified date. Also, included are the characteristics of the housing units where they reside.
The 2010 CPH is designed to take an inventory of the total population and housing units in the Philippines and collect information about their characteristics. The census of population is the source of information on the size and distribution of the population, as well as their demographic, social, economic, and cultural characteristics. The census of housing, on the other hand, provides information on the stock of housing units and their structural characteristics and facilities which have bearing on the maintenance of privacy and health, and the development of normal family living conditions. These information are vital for making rational plans and programs for local and national development.
Specifically, the 2010 CPH aims to:
- obtain comprehensive data on the size, composition, and distribution of the population of the Philippines;
- gather data on birth registration, literacy, school attendance, place of school, highest grade/year completed, residence 5 years ago, overseas worker, usual occupation, kind of business or industry, class of worker, place of work, fertility, religion, citizenship, ethnic group, disability, and functional difficulty, and determine their geographic distribution;
- take stock of the housing units existing in the country and to get information about their geographic location, structural characteristics, and facilities, among others;
- obtain information on the characteristics of the barangay, which will be used as basis for urban-rural classification; and
- serve as sampling frame for use in household-based surveys.
Data collected in this census were compiled, evaluated, analyzed, published, and disseminated for the use of government, business, industry, social scientists, other research and academic institutions, and the general public. Among the important uses of census data are the following:
- redistricting and apportionment of congressional seats;
- allocation of resources and revenues;
- creation of political and administrative units;
- formulation of policies concerning population and housing; and
- formulation of programs relative to the delivery of basic services for health, education, housing, and others
In business and industry:
- determination of sites for establishing businesses;
- determination of consumer demands for various goods and services; and
- determination of supply of labor for the production of goods and services
In research and academic institutions:
- conduct of researches on population and other disciplines; and
- study of population growth and distribution as basis in preparing projections
- Individuals: relationship to household head (household population)/residence status (institutional population), sex, age, birth registration, marital status, religious affiliation, citizenship, ethnicity, disability, functional difficulty, residence 5 years ago, literacy, highest educational attainment, school attendance, place of school, overseas worker, usual occupation, kind of business or industry, class of worker, place of work, and fertility indicators
- Households: fuel for lighting, fuel for cooking, source of water supply for drinking, cooking, and laundry/bathing, tenure status of the housing unit, acquisition of the housing unit, source of financing of the housing unit, monthly rental of the housing unit, tenure status of the lot, usual manner of garbage disposal, kind of toilet facility, land ownership, language/dialect generally spoken at home, residence 5 years from now, presence of household conveniences/devices, and internet access
- Housing units: type of building, construction materials of roof and walls, state of repair of the building/house, year building/house was built, and floor area of the housing unit
- Institutional living quarters: type of institutional living quarter
- Barangay: facilities, characteristics, establishments, and travel information
Data Collection Notes
The pretest for the 2010 CPH was generally aimed to test the effectiveness of the new operational procedures for data collection as well as to test the appropriateness and effectiveness of the designed questionnaires.
To ensure that these objectives are achieved, the pretest was conducted in order to:
1. To test the operational procedures for conducting the listing and mapping operation before collecting the detailed characteristics of the population and housing unit;
2. To test the appropriateness of the sequence of questions in collecting the data items;
3. To test the correctness and effectiveness of the questions to collect the following data items on population:
- maternal mortality
- information and communication technology and internet access
4. Determine problems, issues and concerns that may arise during the actual field operations.
The pretest was conducted in several barangays of San Pablo City, Laguna from August 3 to 5, 2009.
In preparation for the actual 2010 CPH, a pilot census was conducted during the last quarter of 2009. A pilot census is a dry run of all the aspects of census operations such as on coordination, recruitment and training of personnel, mapping, field enumeration and supervision, and processing of questionnaires. It was conducted in selected areas a year before the actual census to simulate all the activities in an actual census. A set of criteria based on certain socio-economic and demographic characteristics was used in the selection of pilot areas. In general, the areas had a mixture of a typical urban and rural setting.
The pilot areas selected for 2010 CPH were:
1. Barangay Magallanes, Makati City
2. Kabayan, Benguet
3. Sierra Bullones, Bohol
4. Cagdianao, Dianagat Islands
The enumeration for pilot census was conducted from October 21 to November 17, 2009. The results of the pilot census helped the census planners in evaluating/assessing whether the objectives of the census could be satisfactorily met. It also helped identify and resolve operational problems prior to the actual census.
The actual census-taking for 2010 CPH was conducted from May 17, 2010 to June 14, 2010, except in highly urbanized cities such as the cities in the NCR, and large provinces in CALABARZON and Central Luzon where the enumeration period extended beyond 23 days. About 68,146 public school teachers were employed for the census as enumerators, team supervisors, and census area supervisors. Their number was augmented by 19,579 hired personnel who were assigned to enumerate in large and congested areas where enumeration was expected to go beyond 23 days and thus cannot be handled by teachers who were expected to report for the school opening on June 14. An enumerator was assigned to enumerate one enumeration area (EA), which has about 350 households. A ratio of one team supervisor to five enumerators was used during the census operations.
In order to prepare the 87,725 census personnel for enumeration work, four levels of training were conducted. The first level training for enumeration was participated in by personnel of NSO central office and officials of NSO regional and selected provincial offices, who, in turn acted as trainers in succeeding levels. The second level training was for NSO provincial and regional office officials and staff who served as trainers for the third and fourth level training. The third level training was participated in by public school teachers who were assigned as census area supervisors. The enumerators and team supervisors were trained during the fourth level training. A standard training program covering the concepts, definitions, procedures, as well as duties and responsibilities of enumerators and supervisors was used.
Census-taking involved going around the whole enumeration area to do the required census procedures, as follows:
1. Courtesy Call. As a matter of protocol, the census personnel made a courtesy call to the barangay chairperson. The enumerator informed the official that the census would be undertaken in his/her barangay and the enumerators would go around the entire area to ask questions from the residents.
2. Mapping and Canvassing. The enumerator went around the entire EA to familiarize himself with the place and checked the barangay or EA boundaries and landmarks, and reflected these on the barangay/EA map.
3. Listing using CPH Form 1 or the Listing Booklet. The enumerator listed buildings with living quarters, housing units, households and number of household members, and institutional living quarters, and number of persons staying in institutions. Structures which are occupied or used as living quarters by households, even though these are not intended for human habitation were also listed. During the listing, the names of the household heads and their addresses, and the names and addresses of institutions were recorded.
4. Interview and Recording of Answers. For every household or institution listed, the enumerator administered a questionnaire, that is, CPH Form 2 or Form 3 for a household and CPH Form 4 for an institution. The barangay chairperson or any official was also interviewed by the enumerator or his team supervisor using CPH Form 5 or Barangay Questionnaire.
5. Plotting. The enumerator plotted the building with its assigned serial number on the EA map. Standard cartographic symbols were used in plotting the buildings of the households and institutions.
6. Posting of sticker. The enumerator posted a sticker on the door, gate or any conspicuous part of the housing unit or institutional living quarter, to indicate that the household or institution has been listed and/or interviewed.
In addition to the count of the household population and institutional population, information about selected demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population were collected using different census questionnaires. These questionnaires were reviewed for completeness and consistency of entries at various phases of the census operations. During data collection, the census supervisors scrutinized questionnaires for completeness and consistency of entries.
Progress monitoring reports were utilized to track the progress of census and field operations and to evaluate the completeness of census coverage in each EA while enumeration was still ongoing. The provincial, regional and central offices of NSO monitored the progress through the Progress Monitoring System (PMS). The PMS generated reports on number of households, institutions and persons enumerated based on the information sent by area supervisors through SMS (short messaging system or text messaging).
Review of accomplished questionnaires for completeness and consistency of entries was also carried out at the census headquarters where the census teams met weekly and at the provincial offices during manual processing. Machine processing, which includes scanning and interpretation, key-from-image data entry, completeness and consistency checking, and consolidation of data, were done at the various census processing centers (CPC) in the country. Data files were transmitted from the CPCs to the Central Office for the generation of census counts. Population counts by province, city, municipality and barangay as determined from the processed census questionnaires are official for all purposes as proclaimed by the President of the Philippines.
The 2010 CPH adopted innovations to make the census operations efficient.
1. GPS technology for mapping. For this census round, the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) was used for mapping selected barangays in five regions of Caraga, Bicol region, Cordillera, Ilocos region except Pangasinan, and in Eastern Visayas. This activity provided the enumerators with more accurate maps with exact boundary information. The use of the GPS technology will be continued by NSO as part of the rolling program for mapping activities.
2. SMS technology for Progress Monitoring. The NSO made use of the SMS technology in monitoring the progress of enumeration nationwide. Started in the 2007 census, the enhanced version of the Progress Monitoring System or PMS was adopted for the current census round. The Philippines is the first country in the Asia and Pacific to have adopted the SMS technology for progress monitoring.
3. Satellite images for validating census coverage. The Central Office downloaded satellite images and identified structures (buildings) in specific cities and municipalities. Counts of households were estimated based on identified structures. These estimates were used to validate the completeness of census coverage in these areas.
The NSO implemented strategies to enumerate areas which were hard to reach, remote, upland, with Indigenous Peoples (IP) communities, under military control or with peace and order problem, Chinese communities or exclusive villages with low response rate because of security or other reasons, and areas with boundary disputes. These strategies included the recruitment of enumerators who are from the area; assignment of IP teachers in IP areas; seeking the assistance of IP guides; coordination with the AFP and PNP for transport and escorts; coordination with local officials; and coordination with homeowners associations in exclusive villages, high-rise condominiums and Filipino-Chinese communities.
CPH Form 1 - Listing Booklet
This form is a booklet used to list the buildings, housing units, households, and the Institutional Living Quarters (ILQs) within an EA. This form also records other important information such as the name of household heads and name and type of institutions and their addresses, population totals, and counts of males and females.
CPH Form 2 - Common Household Questionnaire
This is the basic census questionnaire, which was used to interview and record information about the common or nonsample households. This questionnaire gathered information on the following demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population: relationship to household head, sex, date of birth, age, birth registration, marital status, religion, ethnicity, citizenship, disability, functional difficulty, highest grade/year completed, residence 5 years ago, and overseas worker. It also contains questions on the type of building/house, construction materials of the roof and outer walls, state of repair of the building/house, year the building/house was built, floor area of the housing unit, and tenure status of the lot.
CPH Form 3 - Sample Household Questionnaire
This is the basic census questionnaire, which was used to interview and record information about the sample households. This questionnaire contains ALL questions asked in CPH Form 2 PLUS additional population questions: literacy, school attendance, place of school, usual occupation, kind of business or industry, class of worker, place of work, and some items on fertility. Moreover, there are additional questions on household characteristics: fuel for lighting and cooking, source of water supply for drinking and/or cooking and for laundry, and bathing, tenure status of the housing unit, acquisition of the housing unit, source of financing of the housing unit, monthly rental of the housing unit, tenure status of the lot, usual manner of garbage disposal, kind of toilet facility, and land ownership. It also asked questions on the language/dialect generally spoken at home, residence five years from now, and presence of household conveniences/devices, and access to internet.
CPH Form 4 - Institutional Population Questionnaire
This questionnaire was used to record information about persons who were considered part of the institutional population. It contains questions on residence status, sex, age, date of birth, birth registration, marital status, religious affiliation, citizenship, ethnicity, disability, functional difficulty, and highest grade/year completed.
CPH Form 5 - Barangay Schedule
This form was used to record the characteristics of each barangay, kinds of establishments and service facilities in the area or within some specified distance from the area, and travel information from town/city proper to the barangay.