Super Typhoon Haiyan struck the Philippines on 8 November 2013 and caused catastrophic damage due to its remarkably high wind speeds, storm surges, and waves. In this paper, the characteristics of the human losses and building damage in the coastal region of Leyte, the Philippines, were investigated based on data of observed inundation height/depth, the number of deaths and missing people, and damaged buildings in each barangay. Also, the relationship between human loss and the evacuation environment in each barangay was investigated, based on several questionnaire surveys of barangay captains. As a result, the scale of the human damage caused by Haiyan was found to be similar to that caused by other historical tsunamis, yet it was much larger than that caused by historical storm surge disasters in Japan. Moreover, it was found that there were differences in fatality percentages among neighboring barangays, attributable to several factors. Our questionnaire survey analysis revealed the need for disaster mitigation/prevention education and the importance of leadership by barangay captains in the evacuation of local people. The need for such education should be emphasized widely because some barangay captains still do not understand the meaning of “storm surge” even one year after the Typhoon Haiyan event.