The Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire (CWIQ) Survey is part of the efforts being made by the Bureau of Statistics (BOS) to provide Statistical Information timely to the government as part of the framework for monitoring Poverty Reduction programmes. The CWIQ technique had been developed by the World Bank in collaboration with other development partners and it was to circumvent the problem of delayed processing of African Surveys. CWIQ uses the technology of optical scanner to capture the survey data and thereby fastens the data processing and hence quick publication of the results.
The objectives of the current National CWIQ Survey were:
(i) Elaborating main indicators for social welfare and basic needs of the socio-economic groups of the population.
(ii) Identifying target groups for benefiting special action programs designed by decision makers to address their needs.
(iii) Monitoring changes happening in the welfare of the households overtime.
(iv) Providing a database for social research.
(v) Elaborating on numerous sector programs aimed at improving the welfare of the population across the country. In order to prepare these programs, it is always necessary to identify the problems to be addressed by the policies and to know to which extent the population is affected by these problems.
(vi) Building up models to stimulate the global impact of policy choices and the distribution of the impact.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents) through out the country.
Unit of Analysis
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Bureau of Statistics (BoS)
Ministry of Finance and Development Planning
The World Bank
Government of Lesotho
The World Bank
East African Statistical Training Centre
Buying of scanners for data processing
The CWIQ main survey was conducted as a module of national household survey capability programme (NHSCP) run by the Bureau of Statistics. The desire had been to keep the design as simple as possible, so a two-stage sample design was employed. Enumeration Areas (E.A.s) were the first stage sampling units and the Households (HH's) were the second stage sampling units. A minimum of 400-500 households represented an adequate sample size to give reliable domain estimates. Therefore for each domain 25 clusters were advocated with a “take” of 20 households per cluster. However for Maseru urban an additional 200 households in 10 clusters were taken. The total national sample was made up of:
a. (500*10) = 5000 households.
b. Maseru urban additional 200 households in 10 clusters. Total was 5200 households.
In each district the sample was distributed over rural and urban areas in the ratio of 2:1 respectively so as to obtain reasonable sample sizes in the urban to give urban/rural estimates in each district. Currently the rural/urban distribution is about 4:1.
The design was to select the E.A.s rather than the PSUs, which were selected during the pilot survey. The reason was that the PSUs were too large, thus making supervision very difficult. Additional costs were incurred in traveling within the PSU in terms of time and fuel consumption. This resulted in the extended time to finish the fieldwork. The E.A.s were more compact clusters and most of the problems experienced in the pilot were eliminated.
Since the E.A.s were delineated for the 1996 population census, household listing was absolutely essential before the selection of the households. It was more convenient and cost effective to list the households within an E.A. rather than listing in the whole Psu as was the case in the pilot survey.
The master sample was a proportional allocation of the PSU's to the districts. The design according to the master sample would have made the design unsuitable for district estimates as some districts notably Quthing, Qacha's Nek, Mokhotlong and Thaba-Tseka would have inadequate sample sizes to give reliable estimates at the district level.
In order to have the same margin of error for all districts, the design had aimed at selecting equal number of E.A.s for each district.
Out of a total sample of 5200 households, 4954 respondents responded giving a response rate of about 95.3. The 4.7% non-response was made up of “not found” households and a few refusals. The rural response rate was 97.8% as against 94.7% in the urban.
No weights provided for the data set.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Apart from the training, two other measures were set in place to control the quality of data, especially at the data collection stage. The first concerned the work of the supervisors apart from coordinating the work of their individual groups; they also had the responsibility for quality control. This they did through direct observation of and assistance given to the enumerators under them and also by editing or reviewing completed questionnaires before finally submitting them for data processing.
The other measure was the setting up of a monitoring team made up of two coordinators and senior survey managers from the head office. Armed with guidelines members of the team were in the field throughout the fieldwork period, monitoring the data collection activities. The monitoring team met once a week and when necessary (during the fieldwork period) to review their findings and map out strategies to deal with any lapses observed. The monitoring exercise no doubt contributed to the overall quality of the fieldwork.
Type of Research Instrument
The main survey instruments used for data collection were the generic CWIQ designed by the World Bank with some few modifications. A survey manual appropriately modified (also developed by the World Bank) served as a complement to the CWIQ and was in fact the main instructional manual used in training the staff. The measuring boards and measuring scales were used to measure the height and weight of the children respectively. Notebooks were supplied to the field staff to record the experiences that affected their work.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Head, Division of Demography, Labour and Social Statistics