The 2010 NEDS is similar to the 2004 Nigeria DHS EdData Survey (NDES) in that it was designed to provide information on education for children age 4–16, focusing on factors influencing household decisions about children’s schooling. The survey gathers information on adult educational attainment, children’s characteristics and rates of school attendance, absenteeism among primary school pupils and secondary school students, household expenditures on schooling and other contributions to schooling, and parents’/guardians’ perceptions of schooling, among other topics.The 2010 NEDS was linked to the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) in order to collect additional education data on a subset of the households (those with children age 2–14) surveyed in the 2008 Nigeria DHS survey. The 2008 NDHS, for which data collection was carried out from June to October 2008, was the fourth DHS conducted in Nigeria (previous surveys were implemented in 1990, 1999, and 2003).
The goal of the 2010 NEDS was to follow up with a subset of approximately 30,000 households from the 2008 NDHS survey. However, the 2008 NDHS sample shows that of the 34,070 households interviewed, only 20,823 had eligible children age 2–14. To make statistically significant observations at the State level, 1,700 children per State and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) were needed. It was estimated that an additional 7,300 households would be required to meet the total number of eligible children needed. To bring the sample size up to the required target, additional households were screened and added to the overall sample. However, these households did not have the NDHS questionnaire administered. Thus, the two surveys were statistically linked to create some data used to produce the results presented in this report, but for some households, data were imputed or not included.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Unit of Analysis
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
National Population Commission
Federal Ministry of Education
Universal Basic Education Commission
United States Agency for International Development
UK Department for International Development
The eligible households for the 2010 NEDS are the same as those households in the 2008 NDHS sample for which interviews were completed and in which there is at least one child age 2-14, inclusive. In the 2008 NDHS, 34,070 households were successfully interviewed, and the goal here was to perform a follow-up NEDS on a subset of approximately 30,000 households. However, records from the 2008 NDHS sample showed that only 20,823 had children age 4-16. Therefore, to bring the sample size up to the required number of children, additional households were screened from the NDHS clusters.
The first step was to use the NDHS data to determine eligibility based on the presence of a child age 2-14. Second, based on a series of precision and power calculations, RTI determined that the final sample size should yield approximately 790 households per State to allow statistical significance for reporting at the State level, resulting in a total completed sample size of 790 × 37 = 29,230. This calculation was driven by desired estimates of precision, analytic goals, and available resources. To achieve the target number of households with completed interviews, we increased the final number of desired interviews to accommodate expected attrition factors such as unlocatable addresses, eligibility issues, and non-response or refusal. Third, to reach the target sample size, we selected additional samples from households that had been listed by NDHS but had not been sampled and visited for interviews. The final number of households with completed interviews was 26,934 slightly lower than the original target, but sufficient to yield interview data for 71,567 children, well above the targeted number of 1,700 children per State.
A very high overall response rate of 97.9 percent was achieved with interviews completed in 26,934 households out of a total of 27,512 occupied households from the original sample of 28,624 households. The response rates did not vary significantly by urban–rural (98.5 percent versus 97.6 percent, respectively). The response rates for parent/guardians and children were even higher, and the rate for independent children was slightly lower than the overall sample rate, 97.4 percent. In all these cases, the urban/rural differences were negligible.
The NEDS 2010 analysis weights were created from the original sampling weights of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). The weights were adjusted to account for the new sampled households, scaled by the population of children in a five-year age category by State, then rescaled back to sample size.
The NEDS 2010 sample took all the households in the 2008 NDHS who had eligible children between the ages of 4 and 16 years old in 2010, thus the NDHS weights acted as the basis for the NEDS 2010 weights. At the cluster level, the NDHS weights were adjusted by multiplying them by the number of households found in both the 2008 NDHS and 2010 NEDS studies and then dividing by the sum of the number of households found in the 2008 NDHS and 2010 NEDS studies and the newly sampled NEDS households. To obtain the population weights, the adjusted weights mentioned above were scaled to the population by age and State. At the State level, the adjusted weights were multiplied by the population of eligible children found in five-year age categories, then divided by the sum of the adjusted weights. In accordance with replicating the NEDS 2004 tables, the population weights were rescaled to the number of sampled eligible children in the NEDS 2010 study. At the national level, the population weights were divided by the sum of the population weights and then multiplied by the total number of eligible children sampled in the NEDS 2010.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Type of Research Instrument
The four questionnaires used in the 2004 Nigeria DHS EdData Survey (NDES)—
1. Household Questionnaire
2. Parent/Guardian Questionnaire
3. Eligible Child Questionnaire
4. Independent Child Questionnaire—formed the basis for the 2010 NEDS questionnaires. These are all available in Appendix D of the survey report available under External Resources.
More than 90 percent of the questionnaires remained the same; for cases where there was a clear justification or a need for a change in item formulation or a specific requirement for additional items, these were updated accordingly. A one day workshop was convened with the NEDS Implementation Team and the NDES Advisory Committee to review the instruments and identify any needed revisions, additions, or deletions. Efforts were made to collect data to ease integration of the 2010 NEDS data into the FMOE’s national education management information system. Instrument issues that were identified as being problematic in the 2004 NDES as well as items identified as potentially confusing or difficult were proposed for revision. Issues that USAID, DFID, FMOE, and other stakeholders identified as being essential but not included in the 2004 NDES questionnaires were proposed for incorporation into the 2010 NEDS instruments, with USAID serving as
the final arbiter regarding questionnaire revisions and content.
General revisions accepted into the questionnaires included the following:
- A separation of all questions related to secondary education into junior secondary and senior secondary to reflect the UBE policy
- Administration of school-based questions for children identified as attending pre-school
- Inclusion of questions on disabilities of children and parents
- Additional questions on Islamic schooling
- Revision to the literacy question administration to assess English literacy for children attending school
- Some additional questions on delivery of UBE under the financial questions section
Upon completion of revisions to the English-language questionnaires, the instruments were translated and adapted by local translators into three languages—Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba—and then back-translated into English to ensure accuracy of the translation. After the questionnaires were finalized, training materials used in the 2004 NDES and developed by Macro International, which included training guides, data collection manuals, and field observation materials, were reviewed. The materials were updated to reflect changes in the questionnaires. In addition, the procedures as described in the manuals and guides were carefully reviewed. Adjustments were made, where needed, based on experience on large-scale survey and lessons learned from the 2004 NDES and the 2008 NDHS, to ensure the highest quality data capture.
Data processing for the 2010 NEDS occurred concurrently with data collection. Completed questionnaires were retrieved by the field coordinators/trainers and delivered to NPC in standard envelops, labeled with the sample identification, team, and State name. The shipment also contained a written summary of any issues detected during the data collection process. The questionnaire administrators logged the receipt of the questionnaires, acknowledged the list of issues, and acted upon them if required. The editors performed an initial check on the questionnaires, performed any coding of open-ended questions (with possible assistance from the data entry operators), and left them available to be assigned to the data entry operators. The data entry operators entered the data into the system, with the support of the editors for erroneous or unclear data.
Experienced data entry personnel were recruited from those who have performed data entry activities for NPC on previous studies. The data entry teams composed a data entry coordinator, supervisor and operators. Data entry coordinators oversaw the entire data entry process from programming and training to final data cleaning, made assignments, tracked progress, and ensured the quality and timeliness of the data entry process. Data entry supervisors were on hand at all times to ensure that proper procedures were followed and to help editors resolve any uncovered inconsistencies. The supervisors controlled incoming questionnaires, assigned batches of questionnaires to the data entry operators, and managed their progress. Approximately 30 clerks were recruited and trained as data entry operators to enter all completed questionnaires and to perform the secondary entry for data verification. Editors worked with the data entry operators to review information flagged as “erroneous” or “dubious” in the data entry process and provided follow up and resolution for those anomalies.
The data entry program developed for the 2004 NDES was revised to reflect the revisions in the 2010 NEDS questionnaire. The electronic data entry and reporting system ensured internal consistency and inconsistency checks.
National Population Commission of Nigeria
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