The CFSVA process generates a document that describes the food security status of various segments of a population over various parts of a country or region, analyses the underlying causes of vulnerability, and recommends appropriate interventions to deal with the problems. CFSVAs are undertaken in all crisis-prone food-insecure countries. The shelf life of CFSVAs is determined by the indicators being collected and reported. In most situations, CFSVA findings are valid for three to five years, unless there are drastic food security changes in the meantime.
The objective of the KU-CFSVA is to analyze the food security, nutritional status and vulnerability conditions of the urban population of Kenya, to provide baseline information to the policy-makers and practitioners, and to identify necessary interventions to be undertaken. For the purpose of this study, high population density urban areas only were considered.
The specific objectives were to:
1. Characterize food insecurity, vulnerability, and malnutrition patterns in the low income high density urban household settings.
2. Identify the main problems and priorities for addressing food insecurity and malnutrition within the low income high density urban households;
3. Evaluate the on-going response activities and similar interventions, their scale, location, impacts and gaps;
4. Establish a hierarchy of key food security problems within urban high density households and subsequently develop a response analysis;
5. Evaluate the dynamics of rural-urban migration in the low income high density urban areas
6. Establish a baseline that will inform future urban food insecurity and malnutrition monitoring, analysis and reporting specifically devised for the low income high density urban households.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Household: Demographic and education, Migration and displacement, Food consumption , Formal food aid and other support programs, Food shortage, Coping strategies, Food expenditures and non-food expenditures, Main sources of income, Urban agriculture, Crop production, Livestock production, Constraints to crop production, Constraints to livestock production, Housing characteristics and assets, Water consumption, Sanitation.
Children’s Health and Nutrition Assessment: anthropometrics, immunization coverage, feeding pattern, 24 hour recall interview, food intake, food consumption
Urban areas of Nairobi and Mombasa
The survey covered household heads (group of individuals sharing same budget for basic expenses, including food, housing, health and sanitation), women of childbearing age and all children aged 6-59 months old resident of that household.
Producers and sponsors
Kenya Food Security Steering Group
Government of Kenya
World Food Programme
Food and Agricultural Organization
Famine Early Warning System Network
Sample Size: 3,900 households randomly selected in high-density urban areas.
The urban population is frequently classified as one homogeneous group despite existing differences between populations of different cities and towns such as location, market specialization, and proximity to a specific pre-urban and urban border. In order to provide a sub-national level assessment of urban populations, it was decided to adopt the rural livelihoods surrounding urban settlements as the basis for stratification of urban areas. Nine livelihood clusters were identified for this assessment: (1) Nairobi as a standalone livelihood cluster zone, (2) towns within Pastoral North West, (3) towns within Pastoral North East, (4) Agro-pastoral (semi-arid) towns, (5) Towns within the South Eastern Marginal Agricultural Zone, (6) Towns within the high potential Mixed farming Zone (7) Towns within the high potential Dairy and Cereal Zone (8) Towns within the Coast Marginal Agricultural Zone and (9) Towns within the Mixed Farming Marginal Zone.
A multistage sampling procedure was adopted to randomly select the 3,900 households for interview throughout Kenya's urban areas. At the first stage, clusters or enumeration areas were selected. At the second stage, households were randomly selected. Within each selected household, all the eligible children aged 6-59 months old were selected for the nutritional assessment.
Stage 1: In each strata or livelihood cluster, EAs were randomly selected from a list of all urban EAs using a systematic sampling proportionate to population size method. The number of EAs to select in each stratum was based on a planned 20 household interviews per EAs, resulting in a total of 195 EAs. EAs that had a population density below the 20th percentile of population density were excluded to exclude areas that do not share the typical characteristics of the rest of the urban areas,. This sample is therefore limited to high density urban areas.
Stage 2: Two approaches were used to randomly select households within each EA. Where comprehensive list of households were available for the EA, a simple random selection procedure was used. When such lists were not available, the EPI method was used. Interviewers moved to the midpoint of the settlement and randomly choose a direction then randomly pick a random start between 1 and he sampling interval. Thereafter, they would walk in this direction selecting every sampling interval household until a total sample of 20 is achieved for the EA (*1).
Notes: (*1) The Sampling interval was obtained by dividing the estimated number of households in the EA by the sample takes of 20 households. The estimated number of households was obtained using a canvassing plus area segmentation using existing maps or sketch maps.
The design weight is divided by the product of the total number of households in the population divided by the number of sampled households. The result is a normalized weight factor which was used in all analyses.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
(1) Household questionnaire: including information on identification, demographics and education, health and care practice, migration and displacement, food consumption, formal food aid and other support programs, food shortage and coping strategies, food expenditures, non-food expenditures, main sources of income, urban agriculture, crop and livestock production, constraints to crop and livestock production, housing characteristics and assets, water consumption and sanitation.
(2) Children’s health and nutrition assessment includes: identification and anthropometrics, immunization coverage, feeding pattern, 24 hours recall interview,
(3) Discussion guidelines and questionnaire for Focus groups and key informant discussion on health and nutrition.
(4) Institution profiling questionnaire, covering activities, targeting, challenges and opportunities, future plans and vision, perception and self-evaluation, coordination.
The instruments were developed by experts on food security and nutrition and built on KFSSG's previous field experiences. A detailed outline of the key measurements is provided in annex of report.
All questionnaires and modules are provided as external resources.
Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping
World Food Programme
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Kenya Food Security Steering Group. Kenya Urban Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis 2010. Ref. KEN_2010_CFSVA_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://nada.vam.wfp.org/index.php/catalog on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
World Bank, Development Data Group
The World Bank
Reviewed the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (February 2014). Edited version, the initial version (Version 01 - March 2012, DDI-KEN-WFP-CFSVA-2010-v1.0) DDI was done by Souleika Abdillahi (WFP).
Following DDI elements are edited, DDI ID, Study ID, and Abbreviation. External resources (questionnaires and report) are attached to the DDI.