The CFSVA process generates a document that describes the food security status of various segments of a population over various parts of a country or region, analyses the underlying causes of vulnerability, and recommends appropriate interventions to deal with the problems. CFSVAs are undertaken in all crisis-prone food-insecure countries. The shelf life of CFSVAs is determined by the indicators being collected and reported. In most situations, CFSVA findings are valid for three to five years, unless there are drastic food security changes in the meantime.
The Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) seeks to compile and critically assess available information on household livelihoods, food security and vulnerability in Sudan. The primary objectives of the CFSVA are threefold; 1) to provide an accurate and detailed assessment of the current food security situation within Sudan, 2) to assess the causes and risk factors for food insecurity and childhood malnutrition and potential ways to mitigate both, and 3) to identify particularly vulnerable households (or pockets of vulnerability) where assistance may be required in the future. The answers to these questions are intended to assist WFP programme staff throughout Sudan in their decision-making processes on how to better focus and target activities to maximize impact.
To adequately access the distribution and severity of food insecurity in Sudan, the CFSVA relied on two sources of information; 1) the findings form a series of sub-national, local and regional assessments, and 2) a 2006 comprehensive, nationwide survey, the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- HOUSEHOLD: Demographics, household belongings and livestock, livelihoods, expenditure, agricultural production and food consumption and sources, shocks and coping mechanisms, education, income, water and sanitation, insecticide-treated nets and salt iodization.
- COMMUNITY: Demographics of community, access to services, seasonal calendar, food aid and priorities.
- WOMEN: Marriage, reproduction and child survival, maternal and newborn health, tetanus toxoid, contraception and HIV/AIDS.
- CHILDREN UNDER 5: Birth registration, vitamin A, care of illness, malaria, breastfeeding, immunization, anthropometry
National and state level
The survey was administered to all households heads and to women aged 15-49 years of age mothers/ caretakers of all children under 5 years of age in each sampled household.
Household is defined as a "group of individuals sharing same budget for basic expenses, including food, housing, health and sanitation".
Producers and sponsors
World Food Programme
Federal Ministry of Health
Government of National Unity of Sudan
Ministry of Health
Government of Southern Sudan
Commission for Census, Statistics and Evaluation
Government of Southern Sudan
Central Bureau of Statistics
Government of National Unity of Sudan
European Union Strengthening Emergency Needs Assessment Capacity
Pan Arab Project for Family Health
United Nations Population Fund
United States Agency for International Development
League of Arab States
The sampling frame for the states in the north was derived from the most recent census, completed in 1993. This census, however, was not an effective sampling frame for the south as its coverage (given the ongoing war at the time) was limited to the garrison towns of Juba, Malakal, Wau, and certain other selected areas. Consequently, the population estimates of the census were replaced by the list of villages and estimated population derived by the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) for their recent National Immunization Days (NIDs) campaign. This source replaced Census estimates for Darfur as well. Populations living in institutions, hospitals, military bases and prisons were excluded from the sampling frame.
To get state level estimates, a stratified, equal allocation, multi-stage sampling design was utilized. The sampling frame was first stratified by major geographic and administrative areas (states) and then by urban and rural areas within states. Urban areas were defined as towns with a population of more than 50,000 people. Stratifying by urban and rural areas was not possible in the Darfurs and in the South. States were then divided into counties, localities and finally clusters, or primary sampling units (PSU's). Clusters were ordered by locality and systematically selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling techniques. In total, given the constraints associated with resources, logistics, transportation and communication, 40 PSUs were selected per state and 25 households per PSU. Altogether, approximately 1000 households were surveyed in each state with 24,527 sampled nationwide.
Deviations from the Sample Design
This survey was undoubtedly affected by enumerators not being able to gain physical access to certain places. Access problems were attributed to 4 main factors; 1) crippled or non existent infrastructure, 2) difficulty getting transportation, 3) landmines and 4) ongoing conflict/ insecurity (particularly in Darfur). People residing in remote or conflict affected areas (another potentially vulnerable group) were therefore less likely to be selected and interviewed than households in accessible areas. This again would underestimate vulnerability in these areas.
Given that the survey data was not self weighting, households, women and children were each weighted according to probabilities of selection.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data collection was conducted by 112 teams, with 4-6 teams per state in the south and 4 teams per state elsewhere. Most teams were comprised of 4 enumerators, one driver, one editor/ measurer, and one supervisor.
Data Collection Notes
Training of enumerators and data collection teams was conducted in February and March 2006. Training generally lasted 7-10 days and included a detailed discussion of the questionnaires and specific guidance on interviewing techniques and onsite maintenance of data quality. Practical components of the training included mock interviews between trainees and 3 days of field practice in selected states.
Five separate questionnaires were administered to sampled households. These included;
1. Household questionnaire (a basic listing of all household members, basic households characteristics, etc.)
2. Food security questionnaire (questions on livelihoods, expenditure, agricultural production and food consumption, etc.)
3. Women’s questionnaire (administered to all women aged 15-49 years of age).
4. Under-5 questionnaire (administered to the mothers/ caretakers of all children under 5 years of age).
5. Community questionnaire (administered to leading figures and key informants in each locality).
The Household, Women, and Under-5 questionnaires were modeled on the MICS3 and PAPFAM questionnaires. Questionnaires were pilot tested in November of 2005. Pilot testing of the questionnaires for states in the north and Darfur occurred in Althawra, Umbadda Hamad Elneel, and Alsaroarab. Pilot testing in the south occurred in Rumbek (including Rumbek County and Rumbek East) and Baar Pakeing.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
World Bank, Development Data Group
The World Bank
Reviewed the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (February 2014). Edited version, the initial version (Version 01 - September 2012, DDI-SDN-WFP-CFSVA-2006-v1.0) DDI was done by Souleika Abdillahi (WFP).
Following DDI elements are edited, DDI ID, Study ID, and Abbreviation. External resources (questionnaires and report) are attached to the DDI.