The Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) of year 1995-1996 was the first of its kind conducted in Ethiopia focused on wide range of socioeconomic indicators like health, education, anthropometry, access to selected facilities/services, amenities and assets, which are vital inputs in the process of monitoring and evaluation of policies, particularly in poverty reduction strategies.
Poverty is a major concern and an important issue in Ethiopia. It is a chronic problem exacerbated by war, draught and inappropriate polices. According to recent but ad-hoc studies, the majority of the country's population id estimated to fall below the poverty line. Though, this is not supported by any statistical survey results, it is no doubt carried some truth considering the living conditions of the rural as well as the urban poor in this country.
As in the case of a number of African countries which undertook the Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA) program, the issue of welfare monitoring in Ethiopia arose as part of the Economic Reform Program (ERP) currently being undertaken in the country. The ERP specifically and strongly underlies the effects of the reform program on poverty and the analytical capacity of the government to monitor such effects. To this end, a Welfare Monitoring System (WMS) was set up by the government by mid 1994.
In view of the wider context of the problem, the establishment of the WMS, as justified above is envisaged to consist major elements such as establishing an information system that provides a continuous picture of the poverty scenario in the country, indicate the impact of reform programs on the level of household welfare, establish follow-up procedures on the various programs and activities targeted towards poverty alleviation and conduct regular statistical surveys to assess in particular the efficiency of the efficiency of targeted programs.
Welfare Monitoring Survey of 1995 was the first of its kind to be undertaken in Ethiopia covering both rural and urban area. The WMS places emphasis on six basic needs indicators. These are health, education, anthropometry, access to selected facilities/services, amenities and assets. However, the distribution of households by domestic expenditure was obtained form the Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure (HICES) in which the WMS data were classified by expenditure group. Moreover, the food expenditure and relevant per capita calorie intake were computed form the HICE survey and reported in the Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey Bulletin.
Objectives of the Welfare Monitoring Survey
- provides baseline data on existing poverty situation and establish a system of information gathering on relevant key indicators;
- identify poor and vulnerable groups that could be the focus of targeted intervention programs;
- undertake periodic surveys and researches to evaluate targeted programs;
- assess the short and medium term effects of macroeconomics and sectoral policies and programs on the poor;
- produce conclusive reports and suggestions needed for due attention by the government and concerned implementing agencies.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Individuals (including adult women aged 15 and above, children aged 5 and below)
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
Version 03 is the updated version produced by Development Data Group (The World Bank) based on Version 02 which was Adopted from (DDI-ETH-CSA-WMS-1996-v1.1) that was done by Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia.
The year was changed from 1996 to 1995 showing when the survey was initially carried out. The following metadata fields were updated, title, abbreviation, DDI ID & ID number, Citation requirements. Data was provided, the Roster data (sec1_r2) has less household records than the other Welfare Monitoring Survey data files.
The scope of Welfare Monitoring Survey included:
- Area identification
- Economic and demographic characteristics of the households
- Education (persons aged 5 years and over)
- Housing amenities
- Access to facilities
- Property and land
- Household assets
The 1995 (1987 E.C.) Welfare Monitoring Survey covered the population in the country on a sample basis excluding the non-sedentary population in Afar and Somali Regions. The survey population constitutes all the eleven administrative regions (i.e., Tigray, Afar, Amhara, Oromiya, Somali, Benishangul-Gumuz, Souther Nations and Nationalities Peoples (SNNP), Gambela, Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa) covering both rural and selected urban areas.
The survey was conducted on the basis of 12 rural and 15 urban households selected in each EA and a total of 11, 569 households (7,010 in rural and 4,559 in urban) all over the country were covered in the survey.
The survey covered all population in the selected samples except residents of collective quarters, homeless persons and foreigners.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Authority
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
The 1995 Welfare Monitoring Survey covered both urban and rural areas of the country, except six zones in Somali Region and two zones in Afar Region . For the purpose of the survey, the country was divided into four categories. Urban areas were divided into two broad categories taking into account sizes of their population. Rural areas were also grouped into two categories.
Category I: Rural parts of eight regions were grouped in this category each of which was the survey domain (reporting level). These regions are Tigray, Afar, Somali, Benishangul-Gumz, Gambela, Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.
Category II: In this category thirteen survey domains were defined by grouping contiguous rural parts of the zones or special weredas in Amhara, Oromiya, and SNNP Regions respectively. These were:
I) North Gonder, South Gonder
II) East Gojam, West Gojam and Agew Awi
III) North Welo and Wag Himra, and
IV) South Welo, Oromiya and North Shoa.
I) East Welega, and Welega,
II) Ilubabor and Jimma,
III) North Shoa, West Shoa,
IV) East Shoa, Arsi Bale and Borena, and
V) East and West Hararge.
I) Keficho-Shekicho, Bench-Maji and yem,
II) North Omo, Derashe and Konso,
III) Grage, Hadia and Kembata-alaba-Timbaro, and
IV) Sidama, Gedio, Amaro and burji.
Other than the 13 domains (reporting levels) defined in Category II, three additional domains have been constructed by combining basic domains from the two rural categories. These domains are:
a) Rural Amhara
b) Rural Oromiya and
c) Rural SNNP
Category III: Ten large urban centers of the country were grouped in this group. Each of the ten urban centers in this category was the survey domain, for which separate survey results for major survey characteristics were reported.
Category IV: Urban centers in the country other than the ten urban centers in category III were grouped in this category and formed a single reporting level.
Other than the eleven domains (reporting levels) defined in Category III and Category IV, one additional domain, namely total urban (country level) can be constructed by combining the basic domains defined in the two categories.
All in all twenty four basic rural domains (reporting levels) including total rural (country level) were defined for the survey.
In addition to the above urban rural domains, survey results are to be reported at regional and country levels by aggregating the survey results for the corresponding urban and rural area.
Definition of the survey domains was based on both technical and resource considerations. More specifically, sample sizes for the domains were determined to enable provision of major indicators with reasonable precision subject to the resources that were available for the survey.
The sample selection scheme and sample size:
a) Category I and Category II: A stratified two-stage sample design was used to select the sample in which the Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) were enumeration areas (EAs). Sample EAs from each domain were selected using systematic probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained form 1994 population and housing census. A total of 620 EAs were selected from the rural part. Within each sample EA a fresh list of household was prepared at the beginning of the survey's filed work and for the administration of the survey questionnaire 12 households per sample EA were systematically selected. For the 1995 WMS urban centers in the country other than the ten urban centers were grouped in this category. There is one domain in this category, namely; Other Urban Centers. Other than the eleven domains (reporting levels) defined in category I and Category II, one additional domain namely, total urban (country level) can be constructed by combining the basic domains defined in the first two categories.
b) Category III: Stratified two-stage sample design was used to select the sample in which the PSUs were EAs. Sample EAs from each domain were selected using systematic probability proportional to size; size being number of household obtained form the 1994 population and housing census. In this category, a total of 220 EAs were selected. Within each sample EA, fresh list of households was prepared at the beginning of the survey's field work and for the administration of the survey questionnaire 15 households per sample EA were systematically selected.
c) Category IV: Three-stage stratified sample design was adopted to select the sample from domains in category IV. The PSUs were urban centers selected using systematic probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained form the 1994 population and housing census. The secondary sampling units (SSUs) were EAs which were selected using systematic probability proportion to size; size being number of households obtained form the 1994 population and housing census. Number of sample SSUs selected from each of the the sample urban centers was determined by proportional allocation to their household population from the census. Ultimately, 15 households within each of the sample EAs were selected systematically from a fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey's field work the administration of the survey questionnaire.
Note: Distribution of sample units by domain (reporting levels) is given in Summary Tables A and B of 1995 Welfare Monitoring Survey report.
A total of 943 enumeration areas (620 rural and 323 urban) were selected to be covered in the survey in all regions. Nevertheless, 25 rural EAa and 8 urban EAs were closed due to various reasons. As a result a total of 910 (96.5 %) EAs were covered in all regions. Response rate of the households was 94.17 %.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
A regular supervision is a compulsory component of any survey the field supervision activity of the 1995 WMS was launched side by side with the data collection activity. The supervision was designed in such a way as to closely monitor the data collection activities, facilitate the enumeration process and ensure that the data collection takes place according to the instruction given. In addition to this, regular supervision activities throughout the period, coordinators in most cases professionals, equipped with a thorough understanding of the subject matter, have closely observed the quality of data collection on the spot even during the interview period. Furthermore, a team of experts from the head office have visited all branch statistical offices and some urban and rural enumeration areas to get a first hand impression of the whole activity of the field work. Thus, despite the limited number of field vehicles involved in the data collection, it was believed that, the data collection activity was more or less successfully completed.
Data Collection Notes
Training, Field Work and Supervision:
The training of the field staff was carried out in two phases. The first phase training (training of trainers) was given for about 70 professional and sub-professional staffs at the head office and lasted for ten days. These staff served as trainers of enumerators and supervisors on the second phase of the training which was conducted in 14 branch statistical offices. This involved the training of about 980 enumerators and 150 field supervisors for about 15 days.
The field work of the WMS was conducted between June 1995 and was completed by the end of January 1996. It covered 606 rural and 320 urban enumeration areas.
Data were collected from 12 households in each rural sample EA and 15 households from each urban sample EA. The method of data collection was both interview (for items like population characteristics, education, health and etc) and objective method (for items such as weight and height of children) throughout the survey period.
Method of Data Collection:
Information was collected using questionnaires having seven schedules following both subjective and objective methods of data collection. Data referring to population characteristics, health, education, housing, services and amenities availability, distance form home to facilities/services and asset ownership were collected by interviewing the selected households. Data on anthropometry was collected objectively by measuring height and weight of children aged ranging from 3 to 59 months. Enumerators were provided all necessary field equipment, like measuring tapes and infant scale for objective method of data collection.
The field work involved all the 15 head of CSA's statistical branch offices; about 140 experienced field supervisors; 973 enumerators (including reserve); 70 experts from the head office and many other support staff.
Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Using seven schedules, data was collected on basic population characteristics, health, education, housing, anthropometry, services and amenities available, distance from home to facilities/services, and profile of asset ownership.
Due to the magnitude and nature of the welfare monitoring survey special attention had been given to the data processing activities. Thus, a task force compressing of subject matter specialists and data processing experts was formed to look after the processing and analysis activities of the WMS data. After the completion of the data collection activity, the filled-in questionnaires were returned from the field to the head office, the task force embarked on the first stage of data processing activity, i.e., manual editing, coding and verification. With the utilization of experienced and trained editor-coders and verifiers, the editing, coding and verification of the questionnaires have taken most part of the period after which data entry was started.
The Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) software was used for the data entry activity. To speed up this process, experienced data entry operators, those who served in the 1994 Population and Housing Census data entry operation, were used. In addition, these operators were duly trained in familiarizing themselves as to the general nature of the survey and methods of controlling mechanisms in entering the survey data into the personal computer.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected
For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research,
It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia. Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) 1995. Ref. ETH_1995_WMS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date]
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Development Data Group
The World Bank
Update of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 03 (May 2018)
Change of year from 1996 to 1995 for the following metadata fields were changed:
- DDI ID & ID number
- Citation requirements
Other tasks included:
- Datasets provided
- Documents on external resources were added
Version 02: Adopted from DDI (DDI-ETH-CSA-WMS-1996-v1.1) that was done by Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia.