The Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) 2000 was the third round of WMS conducted in Ethiopia, like the previous ones, focused on wide range of socioeconomic indicators like health, education, anthropometry, access to selected facilities/services, amenities and assets, which are vital inputs in the process of monitoring and evaluation of policies, particularly in poverty reduction strategies.
Ethiopia is one of those countries that suffer the hardest hits of poverty. Persistent war and drought and inappropriate policies are presumed to enhance the extent of poverty in the country. According to the report on Poverty Situation in Ethiopia which was based on the 1995/96 Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey and the 1996 Welfare Monitoring Survey 45.5 percent of the total population are found to live below the poverty line. The report has also revealed the disparity among urban-rural residents in which 47.5 percent of the urban population. Hence, the issue of poverty reduction would necessarily be an agenda of higher priority for the government and policy markers.
As in the case of a number of Africa countries that undertook the Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA) program, the issue of welfare monitoring in Ethiopia arose as part of the Economic Reform Program (ERP) currently being undertaken in the country. The ERP specifically and strongly underlies the effects of the reform program on poverty and the analytical capacity of the government to monitor such effects. To this end, the government has set up a Welfare Monitoring System (WMS) by mid 1994.
In view of the wider context of the problem, the establishment of the WMS is envisaged to consist of the following major elements:
- establish an information system that provides a continuous picture of the poverty scenario in the country;
- indicate the impact of reform programs on the level of household welfare;
- establish follow-up procedures on the various programs and activates targeted towards poverty alleviation; and
- conduct regular statistical survey to assess, in particular, the efficiency of targeted programs.
In order to fulfill the data needs to monitor households' socioeconomic welfare and the ongoing economic reforms, the Central Statistical Authority (CSA) has been conducting Welfare Monitoring Surveys starting from 1996. Reports of the 1996 and 1998 Welfare Monitoring Surveys have also been disseminated.
The Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) 2000, like the previous ones, focuses on wide range of socioeconomic indicators, which are vital inputs in the process of monitoring and evaluation of policies, particularly in poverty reduction strategies. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume I presents results based on individual data base and Volume II presents the findings based on household database. Proxy estimate of households' domestic expenditure obtained by recall interview (with reference periods of 7 days and a month prior to the data of interview) is used to classify households (on quintile basis) for the purpose of tabulating the results.
Objectives of the Welfare Monitoring System
The WMS which involves various ministries and the Central Statistical Authority (CSA) is established with the following objectives:
- provide baseline data on existing poverty situation and establish a system of information gathering on relevant key indicators;
- identify poor and vulnerable group that could be the focus of targeted intervention programs;
- undertake periodic surveys and researches to evaluate targeted programs;
- assess the short and medium term effects of macroeconomic and sectorial policies and programs on the poor;
- produce conclusive reports and suggestions needed for due attention by the government and concerned implementing agencies.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Individual (including adult women aged 15 and above, children aged 5 and below)
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
The WMS 2000 covered the following topics:
- Area identification
- Economic and demographic characteristics of all household members
- Anthropometry and child immunization (aged 00 to 59 months)
- Housing and amenities
- Access to facilities
- Household asset profile
The WMS 2000 covered the population in sedentary areas of the country on a sample basis excluding the non-sedentary population in Afar and Somalia Regional States. That is, the survey covered the population in sedentary areas of the nine Regional States and two administrative regions, each of which is composed of rural and urban parts.
The survey covered households in the selected samples except residents of collective quarters, homeless persons and foreigners.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Agency (CSA)
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
The WMS 2000 covered both the urban and the sedentary rural parts of the country. The survey has not covered six zones in Somalia Regional State and two zones in Afar Regional State that are inhabited mainly by nomadic population. For the purpose of the survey, the country was divided into three categories. That is, the rural parts of the country and the urban areas that were divided into two broad categories taking into account sizes of their population.
Category I: Including rural area of 44 zones in 7 regions, 5 special weredas in SNNPR and rural areas of Gambella, Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa regions each of which are survey domains (reporting levels).The regions that constitute the 44 zones are Tigray, Afar, Amhara, Oromiya, Somalia, Benishangul_Gumuz, and SNNPR. All in all 54 basic rural domains including total rural (country level) are defined for the survey.
Category II: Comprises if all regional capitals and five other urban centers. Each urban center in this category is the survey domain (reporting level) for which separate survey results for major survey characteristics are reported.
Category III: Urban centers in the country other than those under category II are grouped to this category. There are four domains (reporting levels) in this category: Tigray other urabn, Amhara other urban, Oromiya other urban and SNNPR other urban. Eleven additional domains other than those reporting levels defined in Category II and Category III, can be constructed by combining basic domains from these two categories. These domains are:
1) Tigray urban, 2) Afar urban, 3) Amhara urban, 4) Oromiya urban, 5) Somalia urban, 6) Beneshangul-Gumuz urban, 7) SNNPR urban, 8) Gambella urban, 9) Harari urban, 10) Addis Ababa urban and 11) Dire Dawa urban
In addition to the above urban and rural domains, survey results can also be reported at regional and country levels by aggregating the corresponding survey results for urban and rural areas.
Definition of the survey domains was based on both technical and resource considerations. More specifically, sample size for the domains were determined to enable provision of major indicators with reasonable precision subject to the resources that were available for the survey.
Selection Scheme and Sample Size in Each Category
a) Category I: A stratified two-stage sample design was used to select the sample in which the primary sampling units (PSUs) were EAs. Sample enumeration area (EAs) from each domain were selected using systematic sampling that is probability proportional to size, size being number of households obtained from 1994 population and housing census. A total of 1450 EAs were selected form the rural parts of the country. Within each sample EA a fresh list of households was prepared at the beginning of the survey's fieldwork and for the administration of the survey questionnaire 12 households per sample EA for rural areas were systematically selected.
b) Category II: In this category also, a stratified two-stage sample design was used to select the sample. In this category a strata constitutes all the Regional State Capitals and the five Major Urban Centers in the country. The primary sampling units (PSUs) are the EA's in the Regional State Capitals and the five Major Urban Centers and excludes the special EAs (non-conventional households). Sample enumeration areas (EAs) from each strata were selected using systematical sampling that is probability proportional to size, size being number of households obtained from the 1994 population and housing census. A total of 373 EAs were selected from this domain of study. Within each sample EAs a fresh list of households was prepared at the beginning of the survey's field work and for the administration of the questionnaire 16 households per sample EA were systematically selected.
c) Category III: Three-stage stratified sample design was adopted to select the sample from domains in category III. The PSUs were other urban centers selected using systematic sampling that is probability proportional to size; size being number if households obtained from the 1994 population and housing census. The secondary sampling units (SSUs) were EAs which were selected using systematic sampling that is probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained from the 1994 population and housing census. A total of 169 EA's selected from the sample of other urban centers and was determined by proportional allocation to their size of households from the 1994 census. Ultimately, 16 households within each of the sample EAs were selected systematically from a fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey's fieldwork for the administration of the survey questionnaire.
Note: Distribution of EAs and households covered in the survey by domain (reporting levels) and category are given in Table II.1 and Table II.2 of 2000 Welfare Monitoring Survey report which is provided in this documentation.
A total of 1,992 Enumeration Areas (1450 in rural and 542 in urban) were selected to be covered in the survey in all regions. The survey succeeded to cover 1984 EAs (99.6 5) of the selected EAs in the rural and urban areas.
With regard to ultimate sampling units, it was planned to cover a total of 26,072 households (17,400 in rural and 8,672 in urban areas) all over the country. The response rate was about 100 percent (99.34 percent or 17,285 households in rural and 99.67 percent or 8,643 households in urban areas). Only 115 of the selected rural households and 29 of the selected urban households refused to cooperate to provide information for survey questionnaire.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
In the actual data collection process, a total of 2182 enumerators and 572 field supervisors as well as 44 technical staffs at the branch offices were involved with and average supervisor-enumerators ratio of 1 to 5 in general. The actual data collection in the field lasted for five days. For this operations a total of 153 four-wheel drive vehicles were deployed all over the branch offices.
A regular supervision was undertaken at various levels. At the beginning of the fieldwork, management staffs from the head office visited all branch statistical offices and emphasized the importance of the survey and expected quality of the data in addition to discussions on issues of administrative nature. Following the commencement of the fieldwork, close supervision exercise was pursued which included spot checking, re-interviewing and a thorough scrutiny of filled-in questionnaires by field supervisors. Further supervisions were also undertaken by the technical staffs of the branch offices.
Data Collection Notes
Training of Field Staff:
For this survey the training program for the enumerators, supervisors and other field and office staffs were conducted in two stages. The first stage was conducted at the CSA headquarter, in Addis Ababa. The participants were selected form professionals and sub-professionals with long time experiences, branch office heads and their assistants who were to train enumerators and supervisors during the second stage of training conducted at the branch statistical offices.
The training at the head office, which lasted for five days, consisted of theoretical discussions on how to complete the questionnaire as well as practical interview of households and/or household members. The objectives of practical interviewing of households were two fold. Firstly, it enabled to asses how well the theoretical class discussions were understood by all participants so that they could convey the same message to enumerators and supervisors. The second objective was to examine the difficulty which would likely to be encountered during the actual fieldwork.
Thorough discussions in the class room were made after field practice. The discussions were intended to help exchange experience among participants and pinpoint the areas of the survey questions which need more care and attention. This practical fieldwork was conducted both at the head office and at branch offices in selected areas.
The second stage training was undertaken at the branch statistical offices to the enumerators and supervisors who were responsible for the data collection operation. The trainers were those professional and sub-professional staffs who were trained at the head office. The second stage training lasted for ten days and also consisted of both theoretical class discussions and practical field practices.
All the 22 branch statistical offices of the CSA participate in the survey undertaking, especially in organizing the second stage training, in deploying the field staff to their respective sites of assignment, field supervision and retrieving completed questionnaires from the sample sites and submitting them to the head office for data processing. They were also responsible in administering the financial and logistics aspects of the survey within the areas of their assignment.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Basically there were two types of questionnaires; one referring to individual household members and the other pertaining to households in general.
1. Individual level questionnaires were used to collect basic population characteristics, health, education, on nutritional status of the children (anthropometric measurements) and immunization.
2. Household-based questionnaires included modules on housing amenities, accessibility of basic facilities such as food market, post office and telephone, possession of household asset and schedule on living standard indicators with respect to basic necessities (food, clothing and shelter). Proxy measure of household expenditure was also included in WMS questionnaires to hint at the economic situation of households.
Here are list of forms of the questionnaires:
Form 1: Economic and Demographic Characteristics
Form 2: Educational Status
Form 3: Heath
Form 4: Anthropometry, Immunization and Child Care
Form 5A-B: Housing Standard and Amenities
Form 6: Access to Facilities
Form 7: Household Assets
Form 8A: Household Expenditure
Form 8B: Household Income
Form 9: Indicators on Living Standard
Note: The questionnaires are provided as external resource.
After the completion of the fieldwork the filled-in questionnaires were retrieved from the branch statistical offices for data processing. The first stage data processing activity was training of data editors and coders which was held at the head office by subject matter department staff. About 55 editors-coders and 8 verifiers took part in the manual editing, coding and verification activities, which lasted for about a month. Data entry took about 15 days using 28 computers and as many data encoders.
Machine data cleaning, data weighting with proper sampling weights and tabulation activities were carried out procedurally by the professional staff from involved departments at the head office. The Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) software was used for data entry, consistency checks and tabulation of survey results.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Details of the estimation procedures, standard errors and coefficients of variations of selected variables are presented in Annex II and Annex III, respectively of Welfare Monitoring Survey 2000 report which is provided as external resources.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected
For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research,
It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website http://www.csa.gov.et
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Statistical Agency. Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) 2000. Ref. ETH_1999_WMS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date]
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production of metadata
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Development Data Group
The World Bank
Editing of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 1.1 (May 2011) Adopted from DDI-ETH-CSA-HICE-2004-v1.1 which was done by Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency.
V1.2. (Dec 2017) Data collection for the first round was from June to July 1999 and the data collection for the second round was carried out in January to February 2000. DDI ID & ID updated to capture year data collection started. Title updated to match official title in reports.