LCMS-VI 2010 is the sixth in the LCMS series for Zambia. The Surveys conducted to date are as follows :-
(i) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey I of 1996
(ii) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey II of 1998
(iii) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey III of 2002/2003
(iv) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey IV of 2004
(v) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey V of 2006
(vi) The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey VI of 2010
In 1991, the Government of Zambia introduced the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) as the main developmental programme to reform the economy. It had its own successes and shortcomings. Some components of the programme such as privatisation were implemented at record pace. Others such as liberalization of agricultural marketing did not completely take root. A substantial segment of the population is still adversely affected by the cost of reforming the Zambian economy. It is from this realisation that the Zambian government and its cooperating partners decided to put in place a monitoring and evaluation mechanism in 1991, which was implemented through conducting the Social Dimensions of Adjustment Surveys (SDAs). These surveys were called Priority Surveys I and II (PSI and PSII). PSI was conducted in 1991 while PSII was conducted in 1993. These surveys evolved into the Living Conditions Monitoring Surveys (LCMS). The Central Statistical Office undertook two Living Conditions Monitoring Surveys during the SAP period namely:
- The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey I of 1996
- The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey II of 1998
After that, the Zambian government adopted the Transitional National Development Plan (TNDP) in 2002 covering the period 2002 to 2005. This was also the period of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PSRP) 2002 to 2004. As part of the monitoring and evaluation process of these policies, the Central Statistical Office undertook the following surveys:
- The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey III of 2002/2003
- The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey IV of 2004
The 2002/2003 survey was different because it is a longitudinal type where expenditures and revenues of the survey household were collected over a period of 12 months and using the diary method. This type of survey is planned to be undertaken periodically in order to provide data to update the Consumer Price Index weights and also to provide comprehensive household consumption data.
The Fifth National Development Plan (FNDP) was Zambia’s main economic developmental programme for the period 2006 to 2010. The results of the LCMS V of 2006 and LCMS VI of 2010 were used to monitor the impact of the Fifth National Development Plan (FNDP) at micro level, focusing on poverty levels, welfare and the general living conditions of the Zambian population at the beginning of the FNDP and the end period. Future LCMS surveys will be used to measure the impact of the Sixth National Development Plan (SNDP) - the current main developmental programme for the period 2011 to 2015 - on the general living conditions the Zambian population.
The main objective of the 2006 and 2010 LCMS surveys was to provide the basis for comparison of poverty estimates derived from cross-sectional survey data between 2006 and 2010.
In addition, the survey provides a basis on which to:
- Monitor the impact of government policies on the well being of the Zambian population.
- Monitor the level of poverty and its distribution in Zambia.
- Provide various users with a set of reliable indicators against which to monitor
- Identify vulnerable groups in society and enhance targeting in policy implementation.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
For the purpose of computing indicators to meet LCMS objectives, the LCMS 2010 questionnaires included the following topics:
- Demography and migration
- Economic activities
- Household assets
- Household amenities and housing conditions
- Household access to facilities
- Agricultural Production
- Household expenditure
- Community developmental issues
- Child Health and Nutrition
- Deaths in the household
- Self-assessed poverty, shocks to household welfare and households’ coping strategies
In the LCMS 2010, all the 1000 sampled SEAs were enumerated representing 100 percent coverage at national level.
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents) resident in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Office
Government of the Republic of Zambia
Oxford Policy Management
Final Editing of Data, Data Analysis, Technical Support
Department for International Development
Sample stratification and allocation
The sampling frame used for the LCMS VI was developed from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing. The country is administratively demarcated into 9 provinces, which are further divided into 72 districts. The districts are further subdivided into 150 constituencies, which are in turn divided into wards. For the purposes of conducting CSO surveys, Wards are further divided into Census Supervisory Areas (CSA), which are further subdivided into Standard Enumeration areas (SEAs). For the purposes of this survey, SEAs constituted the Primary Sampling Units (PSUs). In order to have reasonable estimates at district level and at the same time take into account variation in the sizes of the districts, the survey adopted the Square Root sample allocation method, (Leslie Kish, 1987). This approach offers a compromise between equal and proportional allocation i.e. small sized strata (Districts) are allocated larger samples compared to proportional allocation. However, it should be pointed out that the sample size for the smallest districts is still fairly small, so it is important to examine the confidence intervals for the district-level estimates in order to determine whether the level of precision is adequate. The allocation of the sample points to rural and urban strata was done in such a way that it was proportional to their sizes in each district. Although this method was used, it was observed from the LCMS 2006 that the coefficient of variation (CV) of the poverty estimates was highest in districts which are predominantly urban and lowest in rural districts. This means that the sample size in some urban districts may have been inadequate to measure poverty with a good level of precision. That is, given the higher variability in the urban districts, a larger sample size would be required. Also some districts had very low CV estimates, indicating a higher level of precision for the poverty estimates. In order to try and improve the precision of the poverty estimates for the urban districts, the initial distribution of the sample was adjusted. It was necessary to increase the number of PSUs for some districts without increasing the budget and at the same time not compromising significantly the precision of the poverty estimates for rural areas. Rural districts which had the lowest CVs in the 2006 LCMS results had their sample size reduced, and these were in turn distributed to districts with the highest CVs. The distribution of the sample for the LCMS 2006 and LCMS 2010 were initially the same but changed after the later was adjusted. Table 2.1 in the Survey Report shows the allocation of PSUs in the survey.
The LCMS VI employed a two-stage stratified cluster sample design whereby during the first stage, 1000 SEAs were selected with Probability Proportional to Estimated Size (PPES) within the respective strata. The size measure was taken from the frame developed from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing. During the second stage, households were systematically selected from an enumeration area listing. The survey was designed to provide reliable estimates at the district, provincial, rural/urban and national levels. However, the reliability for some indicators may be limited for the smaller districts, given the limited sample size. This will be determined by the tabulation of sampling errors and confidence intervals.
Selection of households
Listing of all the households in the selected SEAs was done before a sample of households to be interviewed was drawn. In the case of rural SEAs, households were stratified and listed according to their agricultural activity status. Therefore, there were four explicit strata created at the second sampling stage in each rural SEA namely, the Small Scale Stratum (SSS), the Medium Scale Stratum (MSS), the Large Scale Stratum (LSS) and the Non-agricultural Stratum (NAS). For the purposes of the LCMS VI, Seven, five and three households were selected from the SSS, MSS and NAS, respectively. The large scale households were selected on a 100 percent basis. The urban SEAs were explicitly stratified into low cost, medium cost and high cost areas according to CSO's and local authority classification of residential areas. From each rural and urban SEA, 15 and 25 households were selected, respectively. However, the number of rural households selected in some cases exceeded the prescribed sample size of 15 households depending on the availability of large scale farming households.The selection of households from various strata was preceded by assigning fully responding households sampling serial numbers. The circular systematic sampling method was used to select households. The method assumes that households are arranged in a circle (G. Kalton, 1983) and the following relationship applies:
Let N = nk,
N = Total number of households assigned sampling serial numbers in a stratum
n = Total desired sample size to be drawn from a stratum in an SEA
k = The sampling interval in a given SEA calculated as k=N/n.
The household response rate was calculated as the ratio of originally selected households with completed interviews over the total number of households selected. The household response rate was also generally very high with a national average of 98 percent of the originally selected households for both survey periods.
Due to the disproportionate allocation of the sample points to various strata, sampling weights are required to correct for differential representation of the sample at the national and sub-national levels. The weights of the sample are in this case equal to the inverse of the product of the two selection probabilities employed (one for each stage of selection).The calculation of the probability of selecting an SEA is shown in section 2.5.1 of the Survey Report available under External Reources.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Data collection was done by way of personal interviews using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to collect information on the various aspects of the living conditions of the households.
Three types of questionnaires will be used in the survey. These are:-
1. The Listing Booklet - to be used for listing all the households residing in the selected Standard Enumeration Areas (SEAs)
2. The Main questionnaire - to be used for collecting detailed information on all household members in the selected households
3. The Prices questionnaire:- to be used to collect unit prices of various commodities. This information is vital for harmonising regional differences in prices
The Living Conditions Monitoring Survey data were entered using CSPro version 4.0 software. The LCMS 2010 application used a double entry system unlike the LCMS 2006 application which used single entry. The 2010 data entry was done by two teams, one team in the Provinces and another one at CSO headquarters. The data were then compared and matched by a team of matchers. Errors identified by matchers were corrected as a way of completing data entry. The major advantage of double entry (verification) is that data entry errors generated by the data entry operator are greatly minimized. The data were then exported to SAS, SPSS and Stata formats for data cleaning bulation and analysis.
Director-Central Statistical Office
Ministry of Finance and National Planning
Confidentiality of respondents is guaranteed under the provisions of the Census and Statistics Act, CAP 127 of the laws of Zambia.
The Director of the Central Statistical Office has to authorize access to information. Before being granted access to the dataset or any other information produced by CSO, all users have to formally agree to the following:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the Central statistical Office.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment or sampling unit not identified on public use data files
3. To hold in the strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in the user's analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the Central Statistical office.
4. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only.
5. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organization without the written agreement of the CSO.
Central Statistical Office, Living Conditions Monitoring Survey 2004 (LCMSIV 2004), Version 1 of the public use dataset (December 2005), provided by the Central Statistical Office.
Director- Central Statistical Office
Ministry of Finance and National Planning
Disclaimer and copyrights
All CSO products are protected by copyright. Users may apply the information as they wish, provided that they acknowledge CSO as the source of the basic data whenever they process, apply, utilize, publish or distribute the data, and also that they specify that the relevant application and analysis (where applicable) result from their own processing of the data .CSO and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.