Household Consumption Survey of Rural Nepal 2000-2001
Gramin Nepal ka Gharpariwar Ko Upabhog Sarbheychyan 2057
Other Household Survey [hh/oth]
The Household Consumption Survey of Rural Nepal is the first of its kind to be conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics. The survey completely relied on the Government resources and the technical capability available in the Bureau. This indigenous effort was carried out to test the capacity of CBS acquired through the conduct of the NLSS and NLFS which both received external financial and technical assistance.
After the accomplishment of the Nepal Living Standards Survey, 1995/96, the Central Bureau of Statistics has given importance to the follow up surveys relating to household consumption. Two basic reasons stand behind such a policy. The first is to understand the behavior on consumption, facilitating the assessment of poverty levels. The second reason is to support the estimation of national aggregates of consumption required for the national accounting. It is on that line this consumption survey for rural Nepal has been attempted solely on the Government resources. Sustaining foreign aid supported projects in the long run through capacity building is the aim behind such follow up surveys.
The survey was planned in January 2000 and was launched in the later part of the same year. Hopefully, the survey results will provide some ways of linking the gap likely to emerge from the earlier and the next round of the Nepal Living Standards Survey now in the initial preparatory phase and scheduled for 2002/03. The survey followed the similar methodology as used in the Nepal Labour Force Survey, 1998/99. As a follow up survey, the sample size has been kept at a moderately low level of 1,968 households. The 1991 Population Census of Nepal was used as a frame for sampling. The sampling was done in such a way that the results are valid nationally for the rural areas.
The basic objectives of this survey were
1. To determine the pattern of household consumption and expenditure on food, non-food, housing, durable goods and own account production of goods and services for rural Nepal, and
2. To provide information required in the estimation of National Accounts aggregates.
Content of the survey
1. General information,
2. Housing expenditures,
3. Food expenditures (including home production),
4. Non-food expenditures and inventory of durable goods,
5. Non-food expenditures (own account production of goods and services), and
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Version 01: Final data
The scope of the survey was broadly defined as
1. General information: identify the member of households, basic demographic information such as sex, age and marital status, and information on literacy.
2. Housing expenditures: household's expenditure on housing, utilities and amenities (ownership, rent and expenditure on water, electricity, telephone, cooking fuels, etc.)
3. Food expenditures (including home production): food expenditure of the household including consumption of food items that the household produced
4. Non-food expenditures and inventory of durable goods: expenditure on non-food items (fuels, clothing and personal care, etc.)
5. Non-food expenditures (own account production of goods and services): own account production of goods and services (which included making of baskets, fetching water and collecting firewood, etc.)
6. Income: income from different sources as well as information on loans and savings.
consumption/consumer behaviour [1.1]
Rural areas of Nepal Region Ecological belt
The survey covered the whole rural areas of the country and no geographical areas were excluded. All usual residents of rural Nepal were considered eligible for inclusion in the survey but households of diplomatic missions were excluded. As is normal in household surveys, homeless and those people living for six months or more away from the household or in institutions such as school hostels, police barracks, army camps and hospitals were also excluded.
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Planning Commission Secretariat
His Majesty's Government
The aim of the HCSRN is to determine the consumption pattern of rural households of the country. This is not a baseline survey but is among the first in attempting to set the trend in consumption pattern of rural households with respect to time. It is envisaged that this type of small surveys are done in between the big surveys conducted specifically to measure the level of poverty in the country.
A two-stage sample selection procedure was adopted in the survey. The Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) consisted of a ward or in some cases a sub-ward or an amalgamation of small wards. PSUs were selected with Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling, with the number of households available from the 1991 Population Census as a measure of size. Within the selected PSU, all households were listed in the field and 12 households were selected by systematic sampling with random start. Using PPS sampling at the first stage, 165 PSUs were selected and in the second stage, using systematic sampling 12 households were selected from each PSU. In the process, a total of 1980 households were selected from the rural areas of the country.
The 1991 Population Census of Nepal provided a base for building a sampling frame for the survey. The frame consisted of the list of wards along with the census count of the number of households in each ward. Because of the increase in the number of urban areas (municipalities) and the decrease of rural wards after the 1991 Population Census, the frame required certain modifications. The 33 municipalities at the time of census had been increased to a total of 58 municipalities. All rural wards converted into urban areas had to be removed from the earlier frame. In a number of cases new municipalities were created by combining together a large number of what were formerly wards in rural VDCs. Hence, the rural areas had a number of wards reduced from their earlier list. Fortunately, an exercise in modifying the rural frame had been already done for the purpose the last Nepal Labour Force Survey, 1998/99. Therefore, the same modified sampling frame of the NLFS was found most appropriate to be used for this survey as well.
The sample size was determined on the basis of experiences gained from the previous surveys notably the NLSS and NLFS and the resources available for the survey. The survey obviously had to fix its sample size according to what the available resource could afford to accomplish. The sample size was fixed at 1,980 households.
Since the final "take" was to be 12 households per PSU, it was essential that a selected PSU contained a multiple of 12 households.
In one of the PSUs selected for the survey, enumeration work could not be carried due to unavoidable reasons. The total number of households successfully interviewed was, thus, reduced to 1,968 among 1,980. The response rate of this survey is hence 99.4%.
The sample selection procedure of HCSRN 2000/01 adopted that of the Nepal Labour Force Survey, 1998/99. Weights calculation are discussed in Annex A of the Report on the Household Consumption Survey of Rural Nepal 2000/2001. The data file 'sample' contains the weight variable.
Dates of Data Collection
For data covering 12-month period
For data covering 30-day period
For data coveing the day of enumeration
Data Collection Mode
Altogether, 12 teams comprising of one supervisor and three interviewers were formed for the fieldwork. Each team was assigned separate tasks with all the details illustrating the time table to be followed. The assignment given in terms of area covered a certain number of districts.
To conduct supervision at the district level, 19 officers from different BSOs were trained for 4 days at the centre and they were responsible for supervision in their respective districts. Central supervision was done by the members of the core team. Members of the core team consisting of one Deputy Director General, one Deputy Director and six Statistical Officers made surprise visits in the field.
Data Collection Notes
The entire field staff required for the survey was drawn from the Branch Statistical Offices (BSOs) as well as from the CBS. A total of 73 field staff comprising of 19 BSO officers, 15 supervisors and 39 interviewers was deployed for the fieldwork. Training of supervisors and interviewers was conducted for a period of 7 days at three different places (viz., Sunsari, Makwanpur and Surkhet). In each team of trainers, there were three statistical officers of whom two came from the household survey section and one from the BSO belonging to the respective training centre.
The survey covered a complete period of 12 months. To capture seasonal variations, the whole period of 12 months was divided into two parts (of six months each). The first part (called wet season for the purpose of the survey) included the rainy season and stretched from the month of Jestha (May-June) to Kartik (October-November). The second part (called dry season in the survey) extended from Marga (November-December) to Baishakh (April-May). The data collection work, however, was accomplished within the first three months in each part of the survey. The division of an entire year into two parts (seasons) was envisaged to capture the usually heavy and lean expenditure and consumption patterns that might occur in different seasons. The consumption behaviours of rural people are very different in these two parts of the year. In the summer season, for example, there are fewer festivals and most of the people are busy in their agricultural activities. The autumn season, on the other hand, includes the festivals like Dashain and Tihar. This season, therefore, is more likely to record higher consumption expenditures both on food and non-food items compared to other seasons of the year.
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Planning Commission Secretariat
The Household Survey Section of CBS developed an initial questionnaire of HCSRN on the basis of the questionnaires used in the NLSS and the Multi-Purpose Household Budget Survey (conducted by the Nepal Rastra Bank). The draft questionnaire was subsequently modified through experience gained from pre-tests. The pre-test was carried out in the rural areas of 12 districts.
The questionnaire contained six sections. The contents of the questionnaire are as follows:
Section 1. General Information
The main purposes of this section were: (i) to identify the member of household, (ii) to provide basic demographic information such as sex, age and marital status, and (iii) to collect information on literacy.
Section 2. Housing
This section collected information on household's expenditure on housing, utilities and amenities (ownership, rent and expenditure on water, electricity, telephone, cooking fuels, etc.)
Section 3. Food Expenses and Home Production
This section collected information on food expenditure of the household including consumption of food items that the household produced.
Section 4. Non-food Expenditures and Inventory of Durable Goods
This section collected information on expenditure on non-food items (fuels, clothing and personal care, etc.)
Section 5. Non-food Expenditures (Own Account Production of Goods and Services)
This section collected information on own account production of goods and services (which included making of baskets, fetching water and collecting firewood, etc.)
Section 6. Income
This section collected information on income from different sources as well as information on loans and savings.
Completed questionnaires from the field were brought to the central office (Kathmandu) for data editing. For quality control, range and consistency checks as well as scrutiny were performed during the data entry period.
Completed questionnaires from the field were brought to the central office (Kathmandu) for data entry and processing. Decentralized system of data entry and processing could not be applied due to lack of resources (equipment like portable computers and data entry operators, etc).
A data entry program in Power Basic was developed in the Household Survey Section, CBS. After data entry and data editing, output tables were produced using STATA 5.0 (a statistical data analysis software). The data set of HCSRN has been kept in ASCII fixed format. It is also readable in other database and statistical packages like STATA, SPSS, dBase, FoxPro, etc.
The data entry work began from Bhadra 2057 (August-September, 2000) and was finished in Chaitra 2057 (March-April, 2001). Two data entry operators were involved regularly from the very beginning for the data entry work. For quality control, range and consistency checks as well as scrutiny were performed during the data entry period.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The sampling errors of key aggregates measured in this survey are provided in the Technical Documents. These sampling errors are calculated by means of the STATA 5.0 package that was used for processing this survey result. Sample design and sample size are the main factors that influence the size of the sampling error. In the case of total per capita consumption in rural Nepal, which is Rs.11, 928, the 95 percent lower and upper bounds for the estimate, are Rs.11, 605 and Rs.12, 251 respectively. This means that we are 95 percent confident that the average per capita consumption of rural part of Nepal lies within this range.
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Data Archive, Publication, Distribution and Library Section
Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal
Confidentiality of the respondents is guaranteed by Article 8 of Statistics Act 1958.
Restriction on publication of information and details
Any information or details relating to any person, family, firm or company, which has been supplied, obtained or prepared pursuant to section 3, section 4, section 5, section 6 ot section 7, or any part of such information or details, shall not be disclosed or published directly except to the Director General or to any officer of the Bureau without the written person or of his authorised representative supplying such information or details.
For the purpose of instituting any suit under this Act, nothing mentioned in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to prevent production of such information before any court of law.
The dataset has been anonymized and is available as a Public Use Dataset. It is accessible to all users for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of the Central Bureau of Statistics.
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CBS.
4. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the CBS or among data from the CBS and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the CBS will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
6. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the CBS.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Bureau of Statistcs (CBS), Nepal. Household Consumption Survey of Rural Nepal 2000/01. Ref. NPL_2000_HCSRN_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://cbs.gov.np/nada/index.php/catalog on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal bears no responsibility for any outcomes or for interpretations or inferences arising from the use of the dataset.
DDI Document ID
Central Bureau of Statistics
Accelerated Data Program
International Household Survey Network
Editing for IHSN Survey Catalog
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 1.0 - Central Bureau of Statistics - Original documentation of the study.
Version 2.0 - Edited version by ADP based on Version 1.0 of CBS downloaded from http://cbs.gov.np/nada/index.php/catalog on 13 March 2013.