Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality 2000
SACMEQ II Project
Socio-Economic/Monitoring Survey [hh/sems]
The origins of the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) date back to 1991, the year when several Ministries of Education in Eastern and Southern Africa started working closely with UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) on the implementation of integrated educational policy research and training programmes.
In 1995 these Ministries of Education formalized their collaboration by establishing a network that is widely known as SACMEQ. Fifteen Ministries are now members of SACMEQ: Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania (Mainland), Tanzania (Zanzibar), Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) undertook three large-scale, cross-national studies of the quality of education: SACMEQ I (1995-1999, reading) with seven ministries; SACMEQ II (2000-2004, reading and mathematics) with 14 ministries; and SACMEQ III (2006-2010, reading, mathematics, and HIV and AIDS knowledge) with 15 ministries.
In 1991 the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) and a number of Ministries of Education in Southern and Eastern Africa began to work together in order to address training and research needs in Education. The focus for this work was on establishing long-term strategies for building the capacity of educational planners to monitor and evaluate the quality of their basic education systems. The first two educational policy research projects undertaken by SACMEQ (widely known as "SACMEQ I" and "SACMEQ II") were designed to provide detailed information that could be used to guide planning decisions aimed at improving the quality of education in primary school systems.
During 1995-1998 seven Ministries of Education participated in the SACMEQ I Project. The SACMEQ II Project commenced in 1998 and the surveys of schools, involving 14 Ministries of Education, took place between 2000 and 2004. The survey was undertaken in schools in Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zanzibar.
Moving from the SACMEQ I Project (covering around 1100 schools and 20,000 pupils) to the SACMEQ II Project (covering around 2500 schools and 45,000 pupils) resulted in a major increase in the scale and complexity of SACMEQ's research and training programmes.
SACMEQ's mission is to:
a) Expand opportunities for educational planners to gain the technical skills required to monitor and evaluate the quality of their education systems; and
b) Generate information that can be used by decision-makers to plan and improve the quality of education.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v01: Edited data for licensed distribution
Data was collected on pupils' home backgrounds and their school life; classrooms, teaching practices, teachers' working conditions, and teacher housing; information about school head; enrolments, school buildings and facilities, and school management.
The target population for SACMEQ's Initial Project was defined as "all pupils at the Grade 6 level in 1995 who were attending registered government or non-government schools". Grade 6 was chosen because it was the grade level where the basics of reading literacy were expected to have been acquired.
Producers and sponsors
Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality
International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Funding the project
Funding the project
Funding the project
Ministries of Basic Education, Sport, and Culture, Namibia
Funding the project
The "best" sample design for a particular project is one that provides levels of sampling accuracy that are acceptable in terms of the main aims of the project, while simultaneously limiting cost, logistic, and procedural demands to manageable levels. The major constraints that were established prior to the preparation of the sample designs for the SACMEQ II Project have been listed below.
Target Population: The target population definitions should focus on Grade 6 pupils attending registered mainstream government or non-government schools. In addition, the defined target population should be constructed by excluding no more than 5 percent of pupils from the desired target population.
Bias Control: The sampling should conform to the accepted rules of scientific probability sampling. That is, the members of the defined target population should have a known and non-zero probability of selection into the sample so that any potential for bias in sample estimates due to variations from "epsem sampling" (equal probability of selection method) could be addressed through the use of appropriate sampling weights.
Sampling Errors: The sample estimates for the main criterion variables should conform to the sampling accuracy requirements that the standard error of sampling for the pupil tests should be of a magnitude that is equal to, or smaller than, what would be achieved by The Specification of the Target Population employing a simple random sample of 400 pupils.
Response Rates: Each SACMEQ country should aim to achieve an overall response rate for pupils of 80 percent. This figure was based on the wish to achieve or exceed a response rate of 90 percent for schools and a response rate of 90 percent for pupils within schools.
Administrative and Financial Costs: The number of schools selected in each country should recognise limitations in the administrative and financial resources available for data collection.
Other Constraints: The number of learners selected to participate in the data collection in each selected school should be set at a level that will maximise validity of the within-school data collection for the learner reading and mathematics tests.
For Namibia, the desired target population was all learners enrolled in Grade 6 in the ninth month of the school year (i.e. in September 2000). The net enrolment ratio for the age group 7-13 years old who were enrolled in Grades 1 to 7 in Namibia in 2000 was 91.3 percent. However, in Namibia it was decided to exclude certain learners. These were learners in schools having fewer than 15 Grade 6 learners in them, learners in 'inaccessible schools, and learners in special schools. In all 884 learners from 82 schools were excluded but this only amounted to 1.8 percent of all learners. In Namibia there were 849 primary schools having 48,567 learners. After excluding the 1.8 percent of learners the defined population from which a sample had to be drawn consisted of 47,683 learners from 767 schools.
The number of schools required in the sample is in part a function of the intra-class correlation (rho) which is an indicator of the proportion of variation (in achievement in this case) among schools of total variation. The following is the formula often used for estimating the value of rho in situations where two-stage cluster sampling is employed using (approximately) equal sized clusters.
where s(a)square is the variance of cluster means, (s)square is the variance of the element values, and b is the cluster size. In SACMEQ I the rho had been 0.60 in Namibia. That is 60 percent of the variation was among schools and only 40 percent within schools. Therefore, in the case of Namibia a rho of 0.60 was used. This meant drawing a sample of 248 schools.
The major aim of the sampling was to have the equivalent of a simple random sample of 400 learners. In Namibia, this was 767 for reading achievement and 810 for mathematics. Hence the sample was a very good one for Namibia. For SACMEQ I it had been 335 which was below the required 400. This was because SACMEQ I was the first sample survey in Namibia and at that time it was assumed that the rho was 0.30. It was not. In SACMEQ II the rhos were 0.60 for reading and 0.53 for mathematics. Thus, in 2000 the variation among schools was slightly lower than in 1995.
Response rates for pupils and schools respectively were 91.8 percent and 100 percent. The reason for the shortfall in learner numbers was absenteeism by some learners in some of the schools on the day of data collection. However, sampling weights were used to correct for disproportionality among strata in the calculation of all statistics.
The calculation of sampling weights conducted after all files had been cleaned and merged. Sampling weights were used to adjust for missing data and for variations in probabilities of selection that arose from the application of stratified multi-stage sample designs. There were also certain country-specific aspects of the sampling procedures, and these had to be reflected in the calculation of sampling weights.
Two forms of sampling weights were prepared for the SACMEQ II Project. The first sampling weight (RF2) was the inverse of the probability of selecting a pupil into the sample. These "raising factors" were equal to the number of pupils in the defined target population that were "represented by a single pupil" in the sample. The second sampling weight (pweight2) was obtained by multiplying the raising factors by a constant so that the sum of the sampling weights was equal to the achieved sample size.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The main data collection took place between 25 September and 06 October 2000. Data collection manuals had been written indicating what the data collectors had to do from when they entered a school to when they returned the package of instruments to the regional office. A team of 80 data collection team leaders were centrally trained in Windhoek from 11 to 14 September 2000 to ensure uniformity in data collection through out the country. The training of data collectors included going through the data collection manual, followed by actual data collection in a few Windhoek schools that were not included in the SACMEQ II sample. The training was repeated in the regions for data collectors to be more familiar with the data collection manual and for the benefit of the assistant data collectors. The schools were notified about the data collection several weeks in advance. When the data collectors arrived at the school, they had to meet with the school head to verify the details of the school and what was required. They had to ensure a testing room with 20 well placed sitting and writing places was available. They then had to further ensure that the class registers were available and that the selected learners were present.
Data were collected on two consecutive days. On the first day, data collectors administered the learner questionnaire and reading test in addition to the school head questionnaire as well as the teacher questionnaire and teacher tests. Upon leaving the school, data collectors had to check all the information collected, before returning to the school the following day for the administration of the learner mathematics test.
The data collection for SACMEQ’s Initial Project took place in October 1995 and involved the administration of questionnaires to pupils, teachers, and school heads.
The pupil questionnaire contained questions about the pupils’ home backgrounds and their school life; the teacher questionnaire asked about classrooms, teaching practices, working conditions, and teacher housing; and the school head questionnaire collected information about teachers, enrolments, buildings, facilities, and management. A reading literacy test was also given to the pupils. The test was based on items that were selected after a trial-testing programme had been completed.
Data entry and data cleaning
A team of five persons from the University of Namibia Multi-Disciplinary Research Centre computer lab was appointed and trained in the use of WINDEM, a special data entry package to be used in SACMEQ.
The numbers of keystrokes required to enter one copy of each data collection instrument were as follows: learner questionnaire: 150; learner reading test: 85; learner mathematics test: 65; teacher questionnaire: 587; teacher reading test: 51; teacher mathematics test: 43; school head questionnaire: 319; school form: 58; and learner name form: 51.
In the case of Namibia the total number of keystrokes was as follows: learner questionnaire: 762,600; learner reading test: 429,080; learner mathematics test: 328,250; teacher questionnaire: 358,657; teacher reading test: 15,504; teacher mathematics test: 14,061; school head questionnaire: 86,130; school form: 39,150; and learner name form: 259,284. That is, a total of 2,292,716 keystrokes were required to enter all of the data for Namibia.
An experienced keyboard operator can work at a rate of 25 keystrokes per minute (working from multi-paged questionnaires and stopping occasionally to clarify individual questionnaire entries with the supervisor). Assuming that this kind of work rate could be sustained for, say, around a maximum of six hours per day, then the whole data entry operation for Namibia was estimated to amount to around 255 person days of data entry work. This implied an estimated 10 weeks of work for the 5-person data entry team that operated in Namibia. However, the work was completed in 7 weeks because the data enterers worked extra hours.
At the end of this procedure the data files were sent by email to the unit 'Monitoring Educational Quality' at the IIEP in Paris. Many consistency checks were made for many variables as well as for the identification codes used. The IIEP team had many queries. The first data files were sent to Paris in May 2001 and after nine to-ings and fro-ings the files were finally declared to be clean on 25 January 2002.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The sample designs employed in the SACMEQ Projects departed markedly from the usual "textbook model" of simple random sampling. This departure demanded that special steps be taken in order to calculate "sampling errors" (that is, measures of the stability of sample estimates of population characteristics).
Director- Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality
International Institute for Educational Planning - UNESCO
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE OF THE SACMEQ DATA ARCHIVE
The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) Co-ordinating Centre (SCC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>) has produced a data archive containing all information collected for SACMEQ's first three educational policy research projects (SACMEQ I, SACMEQ II, and SACMEQ III). This archive is now available online on the SACMEQ website so as to give bona fide researchers and students online access to SACMEQ data and documents.
The SACMEQ data sets have been developed at great cost and with the application of stringent quality controls. It is being made available to eligible users because it has a great potential to contribute to educational policy development beyond what has already been achieved in this respect through the reports written by the National Research Co-ordinators (NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>s) and Deputy National Research Coordinators (NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>s). It is expected that many researchers and students will wish to use the Data Archive for research, publications, and/or training purposes.
The Terms and Conditions serve two purposes. Firstly, they provide interested applicants with guidelines on how to access this valuable information resource. Secondly, they are intended to safeguard against the danger of users being unaware of the complexities of the data collection process and consequently arriving at misinterpretations that could lead to incorrect conclusions.
2.0 How can the user gain such access?
In order to obtain SACMEQ Data Archive for any of the SACMEQ school systems, the applicant should follow these steps:
2.1 Read and Agree to these "Terms and Conditions for the Use of the SACMEQ Data Archive."
2.2 Complete an online application form.
3.0 What rules govern the use of the SACMEQ data archive?
3.1 The Data Archive is the outcome of expensive and time-consuming activities of the staff of the represented Ministries of Education spread over many years. For this reason, the SACMEQ Ministries of Education described in the Data Archive should:
3.1.1 be notified by the SACMEQ SCC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> of any request for data;
3.1.2 have an opportunity to review reports based on the data archive so as to correct any gross errors before they are published; and
3.1.3 satisfy themselves that the data have been used in such a manner that they contribute positively to the development of relevant education policies in relevant SACMEQ member countries.
3.2 It is the National Research Coordinators (NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>s) and Deputy National Research
Coordinators (DNRCs) who have spearheaded the collection and compilation of SACMEQ data. In acknowledgment of their efforts, the applicant(s) will be required to invite the relevant country's National Research Coordinator to participate in the study associated with the use of the data. Where an individual other than the NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> or DNRC is co-opted, the relevant NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> and DNRC shall be given the first right of refusal.
3.3 This provision does not apply in situations where the SACMEQ Data Archive is used purely for purposes of individual academic research by a student, and where the results are not intended for publication.
3.4 All relevant NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>s and DNRCs will be informed by the SCC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> about the recipients of the Data Archive.
3.5 SACMEQ provides the SACMEQ Data Archive to applicants on the basis of the intended use stated in the application. The applicant, therefore, should not use the data for any purpose other than the one stated in the application. Should the applicant(s) wish to use the data for a purpose other than that stated in the agreement, then he/she/they must first secure the written approval of SACMEQ before he/she/they proceed to do so.
3.6 SACMEQ data are provided for the sole and exclusive use of the applicant specified in the agreement. The successful applicant should, therefore, not share the SACMEQ Data Archive with, or pass it on to, any other unauthorized person(s).
3.7 The authorized user shall take responsibility for the safe custody of the SACMEQ Data Archive and also take reasonable steps to ensure that no unauthorized persons gain access to it.
3.8 The authorized user shall give due credit to SACMEQ for providing the Data Archive by providing written acknowledgement of this in any publication emanating from their use.
3.9 As the Data Archive remains the property of the SACMEQ, no other person(s), including the successful applicants or the member Ministry, shall re-distribute or offer for sale the SACMEQ Data Archive.
3.10 All reports based on the SACMEQ Data Archive have to secure the written approval of the SCC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> prior to the publication in order to confirm compliance to our terms and conditions, and also to ensure that there is no misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the data.
3.11 Once authorization has been granted to access the archive, you will see a link on the website which will take you to the Data Archive.
3.12 All relevant NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>s will be informed by the SCC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> about the recipients of the SACMEQ Data Archive.
3.13 Full acknowledgement of the source of the data (including reference to the SACMEQ Data Archive) must be given whenever the data are used.
3.14 A copy of any published article or report based on the SACMEQ Data Archive must be provided free of charge to (a) the SACMEQ Co-ordinating Centre, and (b) the Ministry(ies) of Education from whose data the report has been generated.
Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality. SACMEQ II Project 2000 [dataset]. Version 4. Harare: SACMEQ [producer], 2004. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning, UNESCO [distributor], 2010.
Director- Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ)
International Institute for Educational Planning (UNESCO)
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.