Programme for International Student Assessment 2000
The first PISA survey was conducted in 2000 in 32 countries (including 28 OECD Member countries) using written tasks answered in schools under independently supervised test conditions. Another 11 countries completed the same assessment in 2002. PISA 2000 surveyed reading, mathematical and scientific literacy, with a primary focus on reading. The survey is repeated every three years, with the primary focus shifting to mathematics in 2003, science in 2006 and back to reading in 2009.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), is a collaborative effort among OECD Member countries to measure how well 15-year-old young adults approaching the end of compulsory schooling are prepared to meet the challenges of today's knowledge societies. The assessment is forward-looking: rather than focusing on the extent to which these students have mastered a specific school curriculum, it looks at their ability to use their knowledge and skills to meet real-life challenges. This orientation reflects a change in curricular goals and objectives, which are increasingly concerned with what students can do with what they learn at school. Thirty-two countries participated in the first PISA survey in 2000. It included 28 Member countries of the OECD, and four non-OECD countries.
Unit of Analysis
The base PISA target population in each country consisted of 15-year-old students attending educational institutions located within the participating country. In practice, this refers to students who were aged between 15 years and 3 (complete) months and 16 years and 2 (complete) months at the beginning of the assessment period and who were enrolled in an educational institution, regardless of the grade level or type of institution and of whether they are fulltime or part-time students.
The scope of the PISA 2000 study includes the following:
- Students' family background
- Student's experiences at school
- Student's attitudes towards learning
- Reading literacy
- Written tasks that measure reading, mathematical and scientific literacy
- Mastering processes
- Understanding of concepts
Participating in PISA 2000: 43 countries - 32 in a first wave and a further 11 administering the same survey in 2001.
Producers and sponsors
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Australian Council for Educational Research
Netherlands National Institute for Educational Measurement
Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale at Université de Liège
Educational Testing Service (USA)
National Institute for Educational Research (Japan)
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
More than a quarter of a million students, representing almost 17 million 15-year-olds enrolled in the schools of the 32 participating countries, were assessed in 2000.
The school Samples:
The sampling design used for the PISA assessment was a two-stage stratified sample in most countries. The first-stage sampling units consisted of individual schools having 15-year-old students. In all but a few countries, schools were sampled systematically from a comprehensive national list of all eligible schools with probabilities proportional to a measure of size. The measure of size was a function of the estimated number of eligible 15-year-old students enrolled. Prior to sampling, schools in the sampling frame were assigned to strata formed either explicitly or implicitly.
The second-stage sampling units in countries using the two-stage design were students within sampled schools. Once schools were selected to be in the sample, a list of each sampled school's 15-year-old students was prepared. From each list that contained more than 35 students, 35 students were selected with equal probability and for lists of fewer than 35, all students on the list were selected.
In three countries, a three-stage design was used. In such cases, geographical areas were sampled first (called first-stage units) using probability proportional to size sampling, and then schools (called second-stage units) were selected within sampled areas. Students were the third-stage sampling units in three-stage designs.
For more on the sampling design for schools, refer to chapter 4 in the document "PISA 2000 Technical Report" provided as an external resource.
The student Samples:
Student selection procedures in the main study were the same as those used in the field trial. Student sampling was generally undertaken at the national centres from lists of all eligible students in each school that had agreed to participate. These lists could have been prepared at national, regional, or local levels as data files, computer-generated listings, or by hand, depending on who had the most accurate information. For more detailed information on student samples, refer to chapter 4 in the document "PISA 2000 Technical Report" provided as an external resource.
For schools: A response rate of 85 percent was required for initially selected schools. If the initial school response rate fell between 65 and 85 percent, an acceptable school response rate could still be achieved through the use of replacement schools. To compensate for a sampled school that did not participate, where possible two replacement schools were identified for each sampled school. Furthermore, schools with a student participation rate between 25 and 50 percent were not considered as a participating school for the purposes of calculating and documenting response rates. However, data from such schools were included in the database and contributed to the estimates included in the initial PISA international report. Data from schools with a student participation rate of less than 25 percent were not included in the database.
For students: A response rate of 80 percent of selected students in participating schools was required. A student who had participated in the first part of the testing session was considered to be a participant. A student response rate of 50 percent was required for a school to be regarded as participating: the student response rate was computed using only students from schools with at least a 50 percent response rate.
For more detailed information on response rates, refer to chapter 4 in the document "PISA 2000 Technical Report" provided as an external resource.
Survey weights were required to analyse PISA data, to calculate appropriate estimates of sampling error, and to make valid estimates and inferences. The Consortium calculated survey weights for all assessed and excluded students, and provided variables in the data that permit users to make approximately unbiased estimates of standard errors, to conduct significance tests and to create confidence intervals appropriately, given the sample design for PISA in each individual country. For detailed information on survey weighting, refer to chapter 8 in the document "PISA 2000 Technical Report" provided as an external resource.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The study was implemented in each country by a National Project Manager (NPM) who implemented the procedures prepared by the Consortium. To implement the assessment in schools the NPMs were assisted by School Coordinators and Test Administrators. For detailed information on field operations, refer to chapter 6 in the document "PISA 2000 Technical Report" provided as an external resource.
Data Collection Notes
This study is the product of a concerted effort between the countries participating in PISA, the experts and institutions working within the framework of the PISA Consortium, and the OECD.
PISA 2000 used pencil-and-paper assessments, lasting two hours for each student. Questionnaires used both multiple-choice items and questions requiring students to construct their own answers. Items were typically organised in units based on a passage describing a real-life situation. A total of seven hours of assessment items was included, with different students taking different combinations of the assessment items. A Student and a School Questionnaire were used in PISA 2000 to collect data that could be used in constructing indicators pointing to social, cultural, economic and educational factors that are thought to influence, or to be associated with, student achievement. PISA 2000 did not include a teacher questionnaire.
For the Student Questionnaire, the scope included the following: basic demographics, global measures of socio-economic status, student description of school/instructional processes, student attitudes towards reading and reading habits, student access to educational resources outside school, institutional patterns of participation and programme orientation, language spoken in the home, nationality, student expectations.
For the School Questionnaire, the scope included: quality of the school’s human and material resources, global measures of school-level SES, school-level variables on instructional context, institutional structure/type, urbanisation/community type, school size, parental involvement, public/private control and funding.
Translations were made from English to French and vice versa to provide the national translation teams with two source versions of all materials (see Chapter 5) and the team often pointed out useful information such as typographical errors, ambiguities and translation difficulties, and some cultural issues. For additional information on translations, refer to chapter 5 of the document "PISA 2000 Technical Report" provided as an external resource.
National Project Managers (NPMs) were required to submit their national data in KeyQuest® 2000, the generic data entry package developed by Consortium staff. After the data entry process was completed, NPMs were required to implement some checking procedures using KeyQuest® before submitting data to the Consortium, and to rectify any integrity errors. For detailed information on data entry and editing, refer to chapter 11 in the document "PISA 2000 Technical Report" provided as an external resource.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. World Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000. Ref. WLD_2000_PISA_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.