There are 2.8 million hectares seasonal floodplain beels which require effective management for the welfare of poor fishermen. These natural resource management actions depend on livelihood status of the beneficiaries and policies need to implement should relate with the socioeconomic status and demands of the stakeholders. This study conducted a survey of socioeconomic condition of the landowners (LO) and landless (LL) fishermen group who fully or partly depend on fishing activities in two seasonal floodplain beels in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh in year 2006-2007. It was found that most of the fishermen were at the age group 31-40 years, larger family size (5.6-5.8) belong to LL fishermen. 46.6% LL fishermen on both the sites were illiterate with no person above secondary level. Among LOs rate of illiteracy were lower and 13-20% were educated above secondary level. Housing condition of LL fishermen is mostly Katcha (60-67%) and of LOs mostly semi-pucca (60-73%). The average annual household income of the LO fishermen ranges from TK 77396-96888 whereas average annual household income of the LL fishermen ranges from TK 36407-37990 which is much below the poverty line. Agriculture is the main occupation and aquaculture, fish trade and business are the main secondary occupations for the LO farmers. LL fishermen are mainly fulltime fishermen with agriculture and aquaculture labor being the main secondary occupations. Average fish consumptions for all types of farmers are 1.38 kg/capita/month. Fish culture can improve their socioeconomic condition. They need to be educated and trained to actively participate to water productivity enhancing activities in these seasonal floodplain aquatic ecosystems.