This thesis investigates the role of masculinities on men’s sexual and reproductive health in Botswana. Botswana is currently in the throes of a severe heterosexually driven HIV/AIDS epidemic that has eroded some of the developmental gains the country had achieved since independence. A unique feature of Botswana’s HIV epidemic is the rapid and phenomenal increase in infection and prevalence rates in the face of good levels of knowledge of HIV prevention and an early and comprehensive HIV prevention strategy that guaranteed access to free HIV prevention and treatment services, including ARV treatment. The lack of effectiveness of the country’s HIV efforts and subsequent increase in infection rates have been blamed on men’s risky sexual behavior and lack of support of their partners’ decisions to utilize these services. In fact, quantitative studies on men’s sexual behavior and HIV such as the Botswana AIDS Impact Surveys show that men are less likely to use VCT services and more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior that increases risk of HIV infection to themselves and their partners. While studies provide the evidence that implicates men in the rapid growth Botswana’s HIV epidemic, the studies provide little or no explanation of factors that motivate men’s behavior in reproductive health. This lack of insights on factors that motivate men’s behavior leads to stereotypes about male promiscuity and may contribute to the lack of effectiveness of HIV prevention strategies.