Household Expenditure and Income Survey 2010, Economic Research Forum (ERF) Harmonization Data
Income/Expenditure/Household Survey [hh/ies]
The Department of Statistics in Jordan conducted Expenditure and Income Surveys in 1966, 1980, 1986-1987, 1992, 1997, 2002-2003, 2006-2007, 2008-2009 and 2010-2011.
The main objective of the HEIS survey is to obtain detailed data on household expenditure and income, linked to various demographic and socio-economic variables, to enable computation of poverty indices and determine the characteristics of the poor and prepare poverty maps. Therefore, to achieve these goals, the sample had to be representative on the sub-district level. The raw survey data provided by the Statistical Office was cleaned and harmonized by the Economic Research Forum, in the context of a major research project to develop and expand knowledge on equity and inequality in the Arab region. The main focus of the project is to measure the magnitude and direction of change in inequality and to understand the complex contributing social, political and economic forces influencing its levels. However, the measurement and analysis of the magnitude and direction of change in this inequality cannot be consistently carried out without harmonized and comparable micro-level data on income and expenditures. Therefore, one important component of this research project is securing and harmonizing household surveys from as many countries in the region as possible, adhering to international statistics on household living standards distribution. Once the dataset has been compiled, the Economic Research Forum makes it available, subject to confidentiality agreements, to all researchers and institutions concerned with data collection and issues of inequality.
Data collected through the survey helped in achieving the following objectives:
1. Provide data weights that reflect the relative importance of consumer expenditure items used in the preparation of the consumer price index
2. Study the consumer expenditure pattern prevailing in the society and the impact of demographic and socio-economic variables on those patterns
3. Calculate the average annual income of the household and the individual, and assess the relationship between income and different economic and social factors, such as profession and educational level of the head of the household and other indicators
4. Study the distribution of individuals and households by income and expenditure categories and analyze the factors associated with it
5. Provide the necessary data for the national accounts related to overall consumption and income of the household sector
6. Provide the necessary income data to serve in calculating poverty indices and identifying the poor characteristics as well as drawing poverty maps
7. Provide the data necessary for the formulation, follow-up and evaluation of economic and social development programs, including those addressed to eradicate poverty
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Version 01: A cleaned and a harmonized version of survey datasets, produced by the Economic Research Forum for dissemination.
All documentation available for the original survey, whether provided by the statistical office or generated by the Economic Research Forum, have been published. However, as far as the datasets are concerned, the Economic Research Forum produces and releases only the harmonized versions in both SPSS and Stata formats.
Household: Includes geographic, social, and economic characteristics of households, namely, household composition, dwelling characteristics, ownership of assets indicators, heads' and spouses' characteristics, annual household expenditure and income.
Individual: Includes demographic, education, labor and health characteristics, as well as annual income for household members identified as earners.
Producers and sponsors
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Department of Statistics (DOS)
Economic Research Forum
The Household Expenditure and Income survey sample for 2010, was designed to serve the basic objectives of the survey through providing a relatively large sample in each sub-district to enable drawing a poverty map in Jordan. The General Census of Population and Housing in 2004 provided a detailed framework for housing and households for different administrative levels in the country. Jordan is administratively divided into 12 governorates, each governorate is composed of a number of districts, each district (Liwa) includes one or more sub-district (Qada). In each sub-district, there are a number of communities (cities and villages). Each community was divided into a number of blocks. Where in each block, the number of houses ranged between 60 and 100 houses. Nomads, persons living in collective dwellings such as hotels, hospitals and prison were excluded from the survey framework.
A two stage stratified cluster sampling technique was used. In the first stage, a cluster sample proportional to the size was uniformly selected, where the number of households in each cluster was considered the weight of the cluster. At the second stage, a sample of 8 households was selected from each cluster, in addition to another 4 households selected as a backup for the basic sample, using a systematic sampling technique. Those 4 households were sampled to be used during the first visit to the block in case the visit to the original household selected is not possible for any reason. For the purposes of this survey, each sub-district was considered a separate stratum to ensure the possibility of producing results on the sub-district level. In this respect, the survey framework adopted that provided by the General Census of Population and Housing Census in dividing the sample strata. To estimate the sample size, the coefficient of variation and the design effect of the expenditure variable provided in the Household Expenditure and Income Survey for the year 2008 was calculated for each sub-district. These results were used to estimate the sample size on the sub-district level so that the coefficient of variation for the expenditure variable in each sub-district is less than 10%, at a minimum, of the number of clusters in the same sub-district (6 clusters). This is to ensure adequate presentation of clusters in different administrative areas to enable drawing an indicative poverty map.
It should be noted that in addition to the standard non response rate assumed, higher rates were expected in areas where poor households are concentrated in major cities. Therefore, those were taken into consideration during the sampling design phase, and a higher number of households were selected from those areas, aiming at well covering all regions where poverty spreads.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The data collection phase covered a full year and a program was developed to organize the fieldwork daily tasks for each team. For the convenience of the families, and to minimize the number of visits, the following plan for data collection was followed:
· Data collection of the housing characteristics form was done at the beginning of the first round. However, items related to the continuity of residence of each member with the family or the arrival of new members to the family were updated at the beginning of the second, third and fourth rounds.
· Data for income by its sources was collected in two phases, once every six months.
· Expenditure on food commodities data was collected for one week in each round where the family recorded all goods bought by type, quantity and value for each day during the week.
· Expenditure on non-food commodities data was collected on monthly basis at the end of each month.
· Capital transactions data was collected once at the end of the fourth round to cover the entire survey year.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Department of Statistics (DOS)
- General form
- Expenditure on food commodities form
- Expenditure on non-food commodities form
- Organizing forms/questionnaires: A compatible archive system was used to classify the forms according to different rounds throughout the year. A registry was prepared to indicate different stages of the process of data checking, coding and entry till forms were back to the archive system.
- Data office checking: This phase was achieved concurrently with the data collection phase in the field where questionnaires completed in the field were immediately sent to data office checking phase.
- Data coding: A team was trained to work on the data coding phase, which in this survey is only limited to education specialization, profession and economic activity. In this respect, international classifications were used, while for the rest of the questions, coding was predefined during the design phase.
- Data entry/validation: A team consisting of system analysts, programmers and data entry personnel were working on the data at this stage. System analysts and programmers started by identifying the survey framework and questionnaire fields to help build computerized data entry forms. A set of validation rules were added to the entry form to ensure accuracy of data entered. A team was then trained to complete the data entry process. Forms prepared for data entry were provided by the archive department to ensure forms are correctly extracted and put back in the archive system. A data validation process was run on the data to ensure the data entered is free of errors.
- Results tabulation and dissemination: After the completion of all data processing operations, ORACLE was used to tabulate the survey final results. Those results were further checked using similar outputs from SPSS to ensure that tabulations produced were correct. A check was also run on each table to guarantee consistency of figures presented, together with required editing for tables' titles and report formatting.
- The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to clean and harmonize the datasets.
- The harmonization process started with cleaning all raw data files received from the Statistical Office.
- Cleaned data files were then merged to produce one data file on the individual level containing all variables subject to harmonization.
- A country-specific program was generated for each dataset to generate/compute/recode/rename/format/label harmonized variables.
- A post-harmonization cleaning process was run on the data.
- Harmonized data was saved on the household as well as the individual level, in SPSS and converted to STATA format.
Economic Research Forum
Economic Research Forum (ERF)
To access the micro-data, researchers are required to register on the ERF website and comply with the data access agreement. The data will be used only for scholarly, research, or educational purposes. Users are prohibited from using data acquired from the Economic Research Forum in the pursuit of any commercial or private ventures.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Department of Statistics (DOS) and the Economic Research Forum. Household Expenditure and Income Survey 2010, Economic Research Forum (ERF) Harmonization Data. Ref. JOR_2010_HEIS_v01_M_v01_A_ERF. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Economic Research Forum
Cleaning and harmonizing raw data received from the Statistical Office