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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)
Title Decentralization of HIV care and treatment services in Central Province, Kenya
Volume 67
Issue 1
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2014
Page numbers e34-e40
URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5108298/

Since 2006, the government of Kenya began decentralizing HIV care from secondary health facilities (SHF) to an expanded network, including primary health facilities (PHF). We evaluated the impact of this strategy on enrollment, care, and outcomes among adult patients in Central Province, Kenya, from 2006 to 2010.


We analyzed electronic patient-level data for 26,690 patients at 15 SHF and 22 PHF. Enrollment, patient, and facility characteristics and patterns in CD4+ testing, World Health Organization staging, and antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation were compared between SHF and PHF. Survival analysis was used to estimate cumulative death and loss to follow-up (LTF) rates in PHF and SHF. Multivariate competing risks regression and Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to identify correlates of LTF and death.


Enrollment in PHF increased mainly between 2007 and 2009, representing 5% and 25% of all new enrollments, respectively. CD4+ test provision and World Health Organization staging, time to ART initiation, and CD4+ count at ART initiation were for the most part similar between PHF and SHF. In multivariate analyses, pre-ART patients enrolled in PHF had a lower risk of LTF than those enrolled in SHF (SHR = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.61 to 0.96). No differences in risk of death among pre-ART patients or in LTF or death among ART patients were observed.


Enrollment at PHF increased substantially during the period; death rates were comparable between PHF and SHF, whereas LTF among pre-ART patients was lower at PHF. This suggests that decentralization can be a successful strategy for expanding HIV care.

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