Gender is a critical concept of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual risk; yet, few studies have examined the intersection between risk and protective factors associated with incidence of HIV among couples. The paper examines gender-specific constructs of resiliency among couples in Kenya. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys, Kenya (2008/2009), we apply logistic regression techniques to analyse three resilience-related outcomes (condom use, HIV test and knowing an HIV test place) in estimating the gender differences and barriers to HIV/AIDS sexual risk. Men’s outcomes were significantly associated with previous HIV testing, urban residence, being insured and higher levels of education. Predictors for women’s indicators included previous experience of sexual violence, previous HIV test, urban residence, number of children and willingness to care for a relative with AIDS. Practical implications are discussed to include providing protective factors to women and formulating policies that minimise the challenges faced by women.